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Science 3rd quarter


gene a portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity
DNA nucleic acid that contains the genetic code
species group of organisms having many characteristics in common
chromosome single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins
dominant an allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype
recessive allele that does not produce a characteristic effect when present with a dominant allele
mutation occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene
natural selection process by which heritable traits increase an organism's chances of survival and reproduction
selective breeding the raising of animals with particular genetic traits through careful choice of parents
humidity amount of water vapor present in the air
convection current transfer heat from one place to another by mass motion of a fluid
weather the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
climate the general weather in a particular region
equator imaginary line drawn around the middle of the earth
atmosphere blanket of gases that surround a planet
horizon the line where the earth seems to meet the sky
latitude distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees
longitude distance measured in degrees east or west from an imaginary line called the prime meridian
fossil fuel hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals
global warming an increase in the earth's average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate
geologist person who studies the history of the earth through rocks and rock formations
cartographer a map or chart maker
continental drift the very slow movement of the continents on the surface of the Earth
magma hot liquid rock below the surface of the Earth
plate tectonics the theory that Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle
asthenosphere a zone in the upper mantle of the earth, consisting of hot, plastic rock
lithosphere includes the Earth's crust and the uppermost part of the mantle
mantle the part of the earth between the core and the crust
kinetic energy the energy of motion
potential energy energy that is stored in an object due to its position
thermal energy energy that is generated and measured by heat
conduction when heat or electricity moves from one place to another
convection the transfer of heat through fluids (gases or liquids) from a warmer spot to a cooler spot
radiation energy transmitted in waves or a stream of particles
Created by: sophia05