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Unit 3 Flashcards

QuestionAnswer
How many bones make up the human adult skeleton? 206 (pg. 93)
What is the difference between a tubercle and a tuberosity? A tubercle is a small rounded process for attachment and a tuberosity is a large rounded process for attachment (pg. 93)
List the 5 functions of the skeletal system. Support, Reservoir for minerals, muscle attachment/movement, protection, and hematopoiesis. (pg. 94)
Synarthrotic joints are _______________ joints, amphiarthrotic joints are ______________ _____________, and diarthrotic joints are ____________ ___________. Immovable, partially moveable, freely moveable (pg. 94)
What joint permits rotation around a single axis? Pivot (trochoid) (pg.95)
What joint permits a smooth/ sliding motion? Gliding (plane) (pg. 95)
Define arthritis. Inflammation of a joint, most often accompanied by pain, swelling, stiffness, and/or deformity. (pg. 96)
What are the four classifications of bones? long, short, flat, and irregular (pg. 96)
A boxer's fracture involves the distal end of which metacarpals? fourth and fifth (pg.99)
What is the mnemonic for carpal bones? Some lovers try positions that they can't handle. scaphoid, lunate, triquitrium, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate (pg. 99)
What is the most commonly fractured carpal bone? Scaphoid (pg. 99)
What fracture occurs most commonly from an outstretched hand with arm extended? (transverse fx with posterior displacement) Colles Fracture (pg. 101)
Where is the capitulum located? Lateral aspect of the distal humerus (pg. 101)
This is a painful condition caused by prolonged rotary motion of the forearm. Lateral epicondylitis more commonly known as tennis elbow (pg. 101)
This often indicates a radial head or neck fracture on a lateral elbow radiograph. Sail sign (pg. 103)
What bone is usually the last bone to completely fuse at age 22-25 and is one of the most commonly fractured bones in young people? Clavicle (pg. 105)
What is the central ray for a thumb radiograph? Perpendicular to the Metacarpophalangeal joint (pg. 107)
Radial deviation best demonstrates which carpals? Medial carpals (pisiform, triquetrium, hamate, and medial aspect of capitate, and lunate) (pg. 109)
What is seen free of superimposition on a medial (internal) oblique view of the elbow? Coronoid process (pg. 110)
For a s shoulder radiograph external rotation shows the ___________ tubercle in profile and internal rotation shows the ______________ tubercle in profile? Greater, Lesser (pg. 111)
What is the central ray for a Grashey Method? Perpendicular ray to 2" medial and 2" inferior to superior and lateral shoulder (pg. 111)
What is the central ray for an AP Scapula Radiograph? Perpendicular to midscapula approx. 2" inferior to coracoid process (pg. 113)
What are the seven tarsal bones? Calcaneus, Talus, Navicular, Cuboid, First (medial) cuneiform, Second (intermediate) cuneiform, Third (lateral) cuneiform (pg. 114)
How many phalanges are in a foot? 14 (pg. 114)
An inversion sprain of the ankle with ligament injury resulting in subtalar joint instability? Sinus tarsi syndrome (pg. 114)
What is the first great toe sometimes referred to? Hallux (pg. 115)
These bones are small, smooth bones, formed in tendons. Sesamoid (pg. 115)
This provides attachment for the cartilaginous menisci of the knee joint? Tibial plateau (pg. 117)
What is the largest sesamoid bone? Patella (pg. 118)
What is the longest and strongest bone in the body? Femur (pg. 119)
Define avascular necrosis. Where there is a disturbance of the fovea capitis femoris or disruption of the nutrient arteries supplying the femoral neck. (pg. 120)
How do most pelvic fractures occur? Trauma (pg. 123)
The pubic angle for a normal male pelvis is ___________ than 90 degrees. less (pg. 123)
What is the central ray for an AP (dorsoplantar) foot? Perpendicular or 10 degree toward heel to base of the third metatarsal (pg. 124)
How much rotation of the ankle is needed to demonstrate the ankle mortise? 15-20 degrees medially (pg. 127)
Where should the central ray be directed on an AP knee radiograph? 1/2 " below the patellar apex (pg. 129)
How much rotation of the femur needs to occur for an AP femur radiograph? 15 degrees internally (pg. 130)
How much should an IR be tilted back for the Clements-Nakayama position? 15-20 Degrees (pg. 131)
What is the central ray for the Danelius-Miller axiolateral inferosuperior position? Perpendicular to the femoral neck and grid (pg. 131)
Where should the Central ray be located for an AP Pelvis? Perpendicular to the midline at a level 2" above the greater trochanter, the top of the IR should be 1-2" above iliac crest (pg. 132)
A contrast exam performed to evaluate soft-tissue joint structures is called? Arthrography (pg. 134)
This type of fracture is when the fractured end of the bone has penetrated skin, also considered open? Compound (pg. 135)
This fracture occurs in the proximal third of ulnar shaft with anterior dislocation of the radial head? Monteggia (pg. 135)
This is when a small bony fragment pulled from bony prominence as a result of forceful pull of attached ligament or tendon, also considered chip fracture? Avulsion (pg. 135)
This fracture usually only occurs in children and infants? Greenstick (pg. 135)
For osteoporosis, Rickets, and arthritis what would you do to the exposure factors? decrease (pg. 135)
Where is a Jones fracture located? Base of the fifth metatarsal (pg. 137)
How many bones compromise the vertebral column on most people? 33 (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 (fused) sacral, 4 (fused) coccyx) (pg. 138)
This is when there is an exaggerated thoracic curve in the back? Kyphosis (hunchback) (pg. 138)
Which cervical spinous process is not bifid? C7 (pg. 141)
How much CR angle should there be for an AP Cervical Spine? 15-20 Degrees cephalic to thyroid cartilage (pg. 142)
For an oblique cervical (RAO/LAO) spine which side best visualizes the intervertebral foramina? The side that is closest to the IR. Good to note that for RPO/LPO positioning it is the foramina farthest from the IR. (pg. 142)
To use the anode heel effect advantage where would you place the cathode end of the tube for a thoracic lateral spine radiograph? Over the lower spine (fat-cat) (pg. 145)
On a scotty dog what part of the lumbar spine represents the front leg? Inferior articular process (pg. 147)
What ribs are considered true ribs? 1-7 because the articulate with thoracic vertebrae and the sternum (pg. 151)
For a PA oblique sternum what position would you place the patient. 15-20 degree RAO, for thinner patient more oblique degree needed. (pg. 151)
What is the average-shaped skull named? mesocephalic (pg. 153)
Name the 8 cranial bones. Frontal (1), Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Occipital (1), Ethmoid (1), Sphenoid (1) (pg. 155)
Name the 14 facial bones. Nasal (2), Lacrimal (2), Palatine (2), Inferior Nasal Conchae (2), Zygomatic (2), Maxillae (2), Vomer (1), Mandible (1) (pg. 157)
What is the smallest of facial bones? Lacrimal (pg. 159)
Where is the vomer located? Inferior to perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone (pg. 160)
Where is the central ray centered for an AP axial (Towne) position for TMJ's? 30 degrees caudad and entering about 3 inches above the nasion (pg. 167)
Why is it important to include the costophrenic angles on all chest radiographs? Common site for pleural effusion (pg. 174)
What are the layers of the meninges from superficial to deep? Subarachnoid space, arachnoid mater, and pia mater (pg. 204)
Created by: bulanowski