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PathoPharm Exam 3

HTN, Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Gout Prototype drugs

Thiazide (Hydrochlorothiaizde) -Diuretic -Treats HTN -Blocks reabsorption of sodium and chloride and prevents the reabsorption of water -1st thing in morning -Monitor k+ -Urinary potassium loss
Potassium-Sparing (spironolactone) -Diuretic (modest) -Treats HTN -reduce blood volume by blocking aldosterone receptors -promotes excretion of sodium and water -Do not cause k+ depletion -Possibility or retaining too much potassium
Loop (furosemide) -Diuretic (extensive)--> greater decrease in BP -Treats HTN -Block reabsorption of sodium and chloride, and prevents reabsorption of water -Emergent use not maintenance -Ototoxic -Hypokalemia and dehydration
Enalapril (vasotec) -Drug for HTN and heart failure -ACE inhibitor -Prolonged half-life -reduces angiotensin II and aldosterone levels -1st dose phenomenon -PRIL cough -Angioedema, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis -BLACK BOX WARNING
Lisinopril (prinivil, Zestril) -Drug for HTN and heart failure -ACE inhibitor -acts by inhibiting ACE and decreasing aldosterone -takes 2-3 weeks -PRIL cough -rash, hyperkalameia
Losartan -Drug for HTN -Angiotensin II receptor blockers -Vasodilation and excretion of sodium + water -Angioedema
Nifedipine (Adalat CC, Procardia XL) -Drug for HTN and angina -Calcium channel blocker -less o2 utilization by heart -admin alert for impending MI or within 2 weeks following MI -reflex tachycardia -TX of overdose: Vasopressors
Clonidine -Drug for HTN -Alpha2-adrenergic agonists -Act within CNS -rebound HTN if discontinued abruptly -take at bedtime -sedation, dry mouth
Doxazosin (cardura) -Drug for HTN -Alpha1-adrenergic blocker -Dilates arteries and veins -1st dose phenomenon somnolence, headache, asthenia, dyspnea, dizziness
Metoprolol + Atenolol -Drug for HTN -Beta1- adrenergic blockers -do not abruptly discontinue(rebound myocardial excitement) -bradycardia
Metoprolol (lopressor, Toprol XL) -Drug for HTN and heart failure -Beta-adrenergic blocker -reduces sympathetic stimulation of heart -bradycardia, abnormal sexual function, insomnia -interactions w/ Digoxin, alcohol, or antihypertensives BLACK BOX WARNING-->abrupt withdrawal
Hydralazine (Apresoline) -Drug for HTN and heart failure -Direct-acting vasodilator -TX of hypertensive emergency -Abrupt withdrawal=rebound HTN and anxiety -reflex tachycardia, palpitations, n/d, sodium+fluid retention -Contraindicated in cardiac problems
Digoxin (lanoxin) -Drug for heart failure -Cardiac glycoside -positive inotropic force action, inhibiting Na+-K+ ATPase -Monitor digoxin levels(<1.8 ng/mL) -Dysrhythmias, n/v, anorexia, visual problems -older adults, renal impairment -Interaction: diuretics andACE
Milrinone (Primacor) -Drug for heart failure -Phosphodiesterase inhibitor -Short-term therapy of advanced HF -IV -Ventricular dysrhythmias, n/v -contraindicated in pre-existing dysrhythmias
Methotrexate -Antirheumatic drug -DMARD -bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, GI ulcerations -Notify provider if signs of infection of GI ulcerations LABS -W/ food or full glass of water -can take 3-6 weeks -Pregnancy X
Hydroxychloroquine (plaquenil) -Antirheumatic drug -DMARD -relieves severe inflammation (often given w/salicylates or corticosteroids) -same time everyday w/ milk -GI disturbances, hair loss, Ocular effects
Allopurinol -Antigout agent -xanthine Oxidase inhibitor -Inhibit uric acid production-->chronic gout -2-3 L of fluids and monitor I&O -W/ food -Avoid food high in purine(red meat, scallops) -Kidney injury, hepatitis, N/V
Colchicine -Antigout drug -Anti-inflammatory agent -Pt who doesn't respond to safer agents -acute attacks for people with chronic gout -W/ food and antidiarrheal agent PRN -GI toxicity, bone marrow suppression, muscle pain/tenderness
Raloxifene (evista) -Drug for osteoporosis prevention -SERM -Act through estrogen receptor(pregnancyX) -Consume vitamin D and calcium -Perform weight bearing exercises -hot flashes, leg cramps, weight gain -BLACK BOX-risk for thromboembolism and stroke
Calcitonin- Salmon -Drug for osteoporosis -Calcitonin -Inhibit activity of osteoClast -Nasal spray(alternate nostrils) -Monitor bone density scan -Diet high in calcium and vitamin D
Alendronate (Fosamax) -Drug for osteoporosis -Bisphosphonate -Lower ALP(enzyme associated w/ bone turnover) -Empty stomach w/ full glass water 2hr before breakfast -upright position 30 min after admin -1-3 months -GI--> n/v/d, flatulence, abdomen pain...
Calcitriol -Vitamin D (active form) -Bone resorption inhibitor -hypercalcemia--> weakness, confusions, anorexia, n/v
Calcium Salts -Calcium supplement -Hypocalcemia agent -oral w/ meals or within 1 hr following meals w/ full glass water -hypercalcemia, lethargy, n/v, renal stones, extravasation
Created by: j.saltzman13