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psych exam 3

chapters 9 and 10

developmental psychology branch of psychology that studies how people change over their lifespan
zygote single cell formed at conception
chromosomes long, thread-like structure composed of DNA
DNA chemical basis of heredity
gene unit of DNA on a chromosome. basic unit of heredity
genotype genetic makeup of an individual organism
sex chromosomes designated as X or Y. determine biological sex
phenotype observable traits/characteristics of an organism
nature vs. nurture which particular aspects of behavior are products of either inherited or acquired characteristics
prenatal development single-celled zygote develops into a full term fetus
germinal period first 2 weeks of prenatal development. rapid cell division, implants in uterus wall
embryonic period 3rd week - 8th week. organs and major systems of body develop, initial development of sex organs triggered
fetal period 9th week - birth. body systems grow and mature, preparations for life outside the womb
teratogen harmful agent or substance that can cause malformations or defects in embryo/fetus. radiation, mercury, rubella, HIV, drugs, alcohol
infant reflexes stepping, grasping, sucking, rooting
temperament inborn predisposition to consistently behave and react in a certain way. easy, difficult, slow-to-warm-up, average
attachment emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver, sense of comfort and security, safehaven
universal grammar chomsky - basic understanding of the common principles of language organization. biological predisposition to learn language
language development cooing/babbling - 3 months. one-word - before 1 year. two-word - 2 years.
cognitive development piaget - children progress through 4 distinct stages. each stage marks a shift in thinking and understanding the world
sensorimotor stage birth - 2 years. explores environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating. no object permanence.
preoperational stage 2 years - 7 years. increasing use of symbols and prelogical thought precesses. symbolic thought, egocentrism, irreversibility, centration, conservation
concrete operational stage 7 years - adolescence. ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations
formal operational stage adolescence - adulthood. ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations
erikson's psychological theory of development stressed the importance of social and cultural influences on personality throughout the stages of life
adolescence identity vs. role confusion
young adulthood intimacy vs. isolation
middle adulthood generativity vs. stagnation
late adulthood ego integrity vs. despair
moral reasoning kohlberg. aspect of cognitive development that has to do with how an individual reasons about moral decisions
gender cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity and femininity
sex biological category of male or female as defined by physical differences in genetic compositions
sexual orientation direction of a person's emotional and erotic attraction
gender identity psychological sense of self as male or female
gender stereotype for female nurturing
gender stereotype for male assertive
cognitive difference in female verbal, reading, writing
cognitive difference in male spatial, math
social learning theory gender roles are acquired through the basic process of learning. reinforcement, punishment, modeling
gender schema theory gender role development is influenced by the formation of schemas - mental representations of masculinity and femininity