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Raditude 21 Ch.12

Contrast Agents

Fills a structure with a material that has a different density than that of the structure. Contrast agent
Agent is a higher density than that of the structure. Positive agent
Agent is of a lower density than the surrounding structure. Negative agent
How do contrast agents serve to widen the difference in attenuation between adjacent structures? Different tissues often enhance differently and intravascular contrast material is handled differently in normal tissue versus abnormal tissue.
A property of intravascular contrast media that refers to the number of particles in the solution, per unit liquid, as compared with blood. Osmolality
High-osmolality contrast media can have how many times more osmolality than that of blood? 7 times
Low-osmolality contrast media can have how many more times osmolality than that of blood? Roughly twice as much.
Contrast media that has the same osmolality as blood is termed____. Isosmolar
A physical property of intravascular contrast media. It can be described as the thickness or friction of the fluid as it flows. Viscosity
What are three things that can affect viscosity? Brand, temperature, and concentration.
How are IV contrast agents classified? Whether the molecules they contain will separate into charged particles (ions) when dissolved in an aqueous solution.
Will the molecules of an ionic contrast agent separate or stay together when in solution? They will dissociate into ions
Do most nonionic contrast agents have low or high osmolality? Low
How are iodinated contrast media metabolized in the body? They are not metabolized but are excreted by the kidney via glomelular filtration.
What is the half life of iodinated contrast media? 2 hours
How many grams of iodine will be delivered when 125 mL of an agent with a concentration of 240 mgl/mL is injected? 125 mL X 240 mgl/mL = 30,000mgl = 30gl
What is a risk factor when administering iodinated contrast? patient's hydration
At what volumes has death occurred from contrast administration? 250 to 300 mL undiluted HOCM ionic media
What is the typical upper limit of contrast media given? 200mL of an agent with a concentration of 320mgl/mL
What body systems does contrast media affect when there is an adverse reaction? Pulmonary and cardiovascular systems
What factors should be considered when accounting for individual volume and concentration of contrast agents? Age, weight, and size of the vessel into which it will be injected.
What is the most common formula for pediatric patients when considering contrast agents? 2mL/kg
What does the term "contrast reaction" refer to? All undesired effects including the many subjective side effects experienced to some degree by most patients who receive contrast.
What are the two categories of adverse reactions to injectable contrast media? Chemotoxic and idiosyncratic
What causes a chemotoxic reaction? Th physiochemical properties of the contrast media, the dose, and speed of injection.
What does the term idiosyncratic refer to? Unpredictable, not precisely understood.
Do adults or children have a lower frequency of contrast reactions and are they chemotoxic or idiosyncratic on nature? Children, idiosyncratic
What are some common side effects of contrast media administered intravenously? Nausea, vomiting, altered taste, perspiration, warmth, flushing, anxiety
How are acute idiosyncratic reactions characterized? Mild, moderate, severe
What are symptoms of a mild idiosyncratic reaction? Cough, itching, rash, pallor, nasal stuffiness, minimal swelling in the eyes and face, and facial rash.
What are symptoms of a moderately idiosyncratic reaction? Respiratory distress, bronchospasm, dyspnea, wheezing, mild laryngeal edema, pulse change, hypertension, and hypotension.
Created by: amy wiseman
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