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Cells

vocab

TermDefinition
Cell Membrane A protective layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier. Outer membrane controls movement in and out of cell. Has double layer-barrier
Organelles Small Bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function.
Cytoplasm The region enclosed by the cell membrane that includes the fluid and the organelles of the cell.
Nucleus The center of a cell that contains the DNA in eukaryotic cells. Directs cell activities and is separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane.
Prokaryotic No nucleus, DNA in the cytoplasm, circular DNA. Examples: bacteria, & yeast
Eukaryotic Nucleus contains DNA, linear DNA, Examples: animal & plant cell, fungi.
Bacteria 1st cells on Earth, singles cell (unicellular), prokaryotic
Cell The smallest functional & structural unit of all living organisms.
Tissue A group of similar cells that perform a common function. Animal: nervous, epithetical, connective, & muscle. Plant: transport, protective, & ground.
Organ A structure made of a collection of tissues that carries out a specialized function. Animal ex: stomach, eye, kidney, lungs. Plant ex: stems, leaves, roots.
Organ System A group of organs working together to perform body functions. Examples: digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system.
Organism A living thing that can carry out life processes by itself.
Cytoskeleton A web of proteins that give shape and support to the cell throughout the cytoplasm.
Three things only in Plant cells Cell wall, Chloroplast, large central vacuole
ER assists in the production, processing, & transport of the proteins and the production of lipids.
Cell Wall A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane that supports and protects plant cells.
Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions-breaking down fats into carbohydrates-powerhouse of the cell. Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, & carbohydrates. Double membrane, inner membrane folded, contains own DNA.
Ribosomes Thousands found in a single cell floating in the ER and throughout the cell. Make proteins.
Lysosomes Digestive "plant" for proteins, fats, & carbohydrates that transports undigested materials out of the cell for removal. Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes.
Vacuole Membrane bound sacs for storage, digestion, & waste removal that contains a water solution & helps plants maintain shape.
Chloroplasts Usually found in plant cells that contains green chlorophyll. This is where photosynthesis takes place.
Nucleolus Inside the nucleus that contains RNA to build proteins
Golgi complex A protein "packaging plant" that moves materials within and out of the cell.
Created by: 23jm8714