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Pharmacy Technician

Hormone Drugs

QuestionAnswer
What are thyroid hormones used for? Regulation of many physiological processes including protein synthesis glucose and carbohydrate metabolism, energy storage, lipid metabolism, nervous system development, and body temperature regulation. They also treat thyroid deficiency (hypothyroidism).
What are the common side effects of thyroid hormones? *Too high of a dose can mimic hyperthyroidism *Overdose can result in heart palpitations, abdominal pain, nausea, anxiousness, confusion, agitation, insomnia, weight loss, and increased appetite.
What are Levothyroxine (Synthroid) and Thyroglobulin (Proloid) examples of? Thyroid hormones
What do Anti-thyroid hormones do? Treat over-secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroid)
How do anti-thyroid hormones work? Interfere with thyroid hormone production
What are Methimazoe (Tapazole) and Propylthiourcil (PTU) examples of? Anti-thyroid hormones
What do emergency contraceptive pills (ECP's) do? *Not an abortion pill *Works earlier than implantation to stop fertilization before conception
What are the ECP's called that are used within 72 hours of unprotected sex? Progestin-only (Plan B)
What are the ECP's called that are a selective progesterone modulator? Ulipristal Acetate
Wat are the ECP's called that are for emergency contraception within 120 hours or 5 days after unprotected sex? SPRM
What are vaginal rings used for? Contraception
Which type of vaginal ring is a low does estradiol-releasing ring, manufactured from silicone elastomer, for the treatment of vagina atrophy? Estring
Which type of vaginal ring is a low does of estradiol-acetate releasing ring, manufactured from silicone elstomer, for the relief of hot flashes and vaginal atrophy associated with menopause? Femring
Which vaginal ring is a low dose contraceptive vaginal ring, manufactured from ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers and magnesium stearate, and releasing etonogestrel (a progesterone) ethinyl estradiol (an estrogen)? NuvaRing
What do corticosteroids do? *Inflammation *Asthma *Cancer *Hypoadrenalism
Which class of hormone drugs are secreted by adrenal glands? Corticosteroids
What are the side effects of corticosteroids? *Stomach upset (take with food or milk_ *Water retention *Increased appetite *Agitation *Suppression of the body's production of cortisol
What are Methylprednisolone (Medral), Prednisolone (Prelone), and Dexamethasone (Desadron) examples of? Oral Prednisone (Deltasone- Corticosteriods
What are Hydrocortisone (Cortaid), Triamcinalone (Kenalog), and Cortisone (Cortone) examples of? Topical Steroids- Corticosteroids
What are Beclomethasone dipropionate (Qvar), Budesonide (Pulmicort), and Fluticasone propionate (Flovent) examples of? Inhaled steroids- Corticosteroids
What is insulin used for? *Produced by pancreas by Beta cells *Reptenishes insulin in patients with Type I or Type II Diabetes
How does insulin work? *Facilitates the utilization and storage of glucose *Type I- Does not produce any insulin; requires daily injections *Type II- Does not produce enough insulin to allow glucose utilization
What is the common side effect of insulin? Hypoglycemia
What is regular insulin? Over the Counter- fast acting
What is NPH (isophane) insulin? Over the Counter- Intermediate acting
What is Semilente insulin? Over the Counter- rapid acting
What is Ultralente insulin? Over the Counter- long acting
What is Humalog insulin? Legend- fast acting
What is Lantus insulin? Legend- long acting/ once daily
What is Levemir insulin? Legend- Man made, long acting and provides up to 24 hours of blood sugar control
What is U-100 insulin? Contains 100 units per mL
What are oral hypoglycemics used for? Manages type II diabetes
How do oral hypoglycemics work? *Promotes insulin release from Beta Cells of the pancreas *Increase insulin sensitivity *Better use of glucose by cells
What are the side effects of oral hypoglycemics? *Hypoglycemia *Photo-sensitivity *Skin rash *AVOID ALCOHOL
What is Sulfanylureas? Oral hypoglycemic- promotes insulin realease
What are Tolbutamide (Orinase), Acetohexamide (Dymelor), and Tolazamide (Tolinase) examples of? Oral hypoglycemic- first- generation agents
what are Glipizide (Glucontrol) and Glyburide (Diabeta) examples of? Oral hypoglycemic- second generation agents
What are oxytocics? -Hormones secreted by pituitary gland, stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle *Relief from breast enlargement during lactation and control of post-partum bleeding *Some Ergot Alkaloids are used to treat migraines
What are the side effects of oxytocics? *Nausea/ vomiting *Dizziness *Increased blood pressure *CP
What are Oxytocin (Pitocin) and Ergonovine (Ergotrate) examples of? Oxytocics
What are progestins? -Female hormones secreted by the corpus luteum also cause growth of mammary ducts and prevention of uterine bleeding during pregnancy *Hormone replacement (menopause) *Contraception
What are the side effects of progestins? *Breast changes *Changes in weight
What is Medroxyprogesterone (Cycrin, Provera)? Progestin- Hormone replacement
What are Norethindrone (Nor-QD) and Norgestrel (Ovrette) examples of? Progestin- oral contraceptives (progestin only products)
What are antihistamines used for? *Allergies *Rashes *Hay fever *Motion sickness *Nausea *Dizziness *H2 antagonists used to treat ulcers and reflux disease
How do antihistamines work? Inhibits the action of histamine
What are the side effects of antihistamines? *Drowsiness *CNS depression *Anticholinergic effects
What are sedating antihistamines (type I)? Completely antagonize histamine at the H1 receptor (block histamine); they cross the blood- brain barrier, making them a CNS drug
What is Diphehydramine (Benadryl) and what is it used for? Sedating antihistamine- treats allergies
What is Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-trimeton) and what is it used for? Sedating antihistamine- treats allergies, rash, and hay fever
What is Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril) and what is it used for? Sedating antihistamine- treats itching, allergies, motion sickness induced nausea, insomnia, and mild anxiety
What is Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) and what is it used for? Sedating antihistamine- treats nausea and motion sickness
What is Meclizine (Antivery, Bonine, Dramamine II) and what is it used for? Sedating antihistamine- treats vertigo
What are Promethazzine (Phenergan) and Prochlorperazine (Compazine) and what are they used for? Sedating antihistamine- antiemetic (stops vomiting)
What are non-sedating antihistamines (type I)? Do not cross blood-brain barrier; no sedation
What are Loratadine (Claritin), Fexofenadine (Allegra), Cetirazine (Zyrtec) and what are they used for? Non-sedating antihistamines- used for allergies and rashes
What are Clariin D (OTC) (Pseudophedrine) and what can it cause? 'D'econgestant- may cause heart palpitations and increased blood pressure
What are non sedating antihistamines (Type II)? Competitive blockers of histamine at the H2 receptors, those in the stomach used to treat ulcers, reflux disease, and heartburn
What are Cimetidine (Tagamet), Ranitidine (Zantac), Famotidine (Pepcid), and Nizatidine (Axid)? Over the Counter non-sedating antihistamines (Type II)
What are proton pump inhibitors (PPI'S)? *Not H2 receptor or antihistamine *Long-lasting reduction of gastric acid *The most potent inhibitors of acid secretion today *Inhibits histamine *Dyspesia (indigestion) *Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) *GERD *Prevents stress gastritis
How do proton pump inhibitors work? Block enzyme system of gastric cells that secrete gastric acid. The proton pump is the terminal stage in gastric secretion
What are the side effects of proton pump inhibitors? *Headache *Nausea *Diarrhea *Abdominal pain *Dizziness
What is Omeprazole (Prilosec)? Proton pump inhibitor- 40 mg is legend, 20 mg is OTC
What is Lansoprazole (Prevacid)? Proton pump inhibitor- OTC
What is Dexlansoprazole (Kapidex)? Proton pump inhibitor- legend
What is Esameprazole (Nexium)? Proton pump inhibitor- legend
What is Pantoprazole (Protonix)? Proton pump inhibitor- legend
What is Rabeprazole (Aciphex)? Proton pump inhibitor- legend
What are prostaglandin antagonist used for? *Arthritis *Minor pain *Fever *Inflammation
How do prostaglandin antagonists work? Inhibit or reverse the actions of prosaglandins by blocking Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes
What are the side effects of prostaglandin antagonists? *Ulcers *Kidney damage
What are NSAIDS? Prostaglandin antagonists- (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
What are Aspirin (Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Ecatrin), Ibuprofen (Motrin), Naproxen (Naprosyn), Ketorolac Tromethamine (Toradol), and Cox-2 selective drugs (Celecocib or Celebrex) examples of? Prostaglandin antagonists- NSAIDS
What are prostaglandins? *NSAID ulcer prevention *Abortifacient (abortion)
What are Misoprostol (Cytotec), Dinoprostone (Prostin E2), and Alprostadil (MUSE) examples of? Prostaglandins
What are androgens? Male hormones secreted by the testes, respinsible for male characteristic sexual changes in men (sex organ development, hairg rowth, muscle development, deep voice)
What are androgens used for? *Testosterone deficiency (hormone replacement) *Muscle wasting (severely anemic and cancer patients)
What are the side effects of androgens? Masculinizing effects
What are Fluoxymesterone (Halotestin, Androxyl I), Testosterone (Androderm), Methyltestosterone examples of? Androgen
What are estrogens? Female hormones, secreted by ovaries, responsible for female sexual characteristics (breasts, body fat distribution, sex organ development, and menstruation)
What are estrogens used for? *Hormone replacement (menopause) *Decrease Heart Problems *Prevent Osteoporosis *Contraception *Cancer chemotherapy
What are the side effects of estrogens? *Headaches *Blood clots
What are Conjugated Estrogens (Premarin), Conjugated Estrogens (Enjuvia and Cenestin)? Estrogens- hormone replacement- made synthetically with plants
What are Ethinyl Etradial (Estinyl) and Estropiate (Ogen) examples of? Estrogens- hormone replacement
What are monophasic oral contraceptives? Fixed does of estrogen and progestin throughout cycle
What are Lo-Ovral, Demulin, Laestrin, Ovran, Levlen, Nordette, and Yasmin examples of? Estrogens- oral contraceptives-monophasic
What are biphasic oral contraceptives? Estroen is the same for 21 days, increased progestin for first half of cycle and decreased for second half
What are Ortho-Navum 10/11 and Necon 10/11 examples of? Estrogens- oral contraceptives- biphasic
What are triphasic estrogens? Estrogen remains the same or varies and progestin varies
What are Ortho Novum 7/7/7, Triphasil, and Ortho Tri-cyclen examples of? Estrogens- oral contraceptives- triphasic
What are 4-phasic oral contraceptives? Offers 4 progestin/estrogen dosing combinations during each 28 day cycle
What are Natazia and Quartette examples of? Estrogens- oral contraceptives- 4-phasic
Created by: Martinafulgieri