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Properties of Matter

TermDefinition
Physical Change a change in size, shape, or the state of matter without a change in chemical properties.
Chemical Change a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
Law of Conservation of Mass matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change.
Atom the smallest particle of an individual element
Proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Electron a negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
Atomic Mass Number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Electron Cloud a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
Nucleus an atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.
Periodic Table a chart that organizes elements based upon electron arrangements and their properties
Chemical Symbol a 1-3 set of letters used to represent an element, the first letter is always capitalized and all subsequent letters are lowercase
Metal an element that is shiny and conducts heat and electricity well
Nonmetal elements that are poor conductors of heat and electric current
Metalloids elements with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals (some are used as semiconductor chips in the computer industry)
Groups or Families vertical columns on the periodic table, elements share similar chemical properties, and generally have the same number of valence electrons
Periods elements that are in the same horizontal row on the periodic table-these elements share the same number of orbitals also known as energy levels and shells
Chemical Reaction the process by which atoms are rearranged chemically to form new substances, chemical bonds can be broken, formed, or both
Chemical Formula chemical symbols and numbers that tell the scientist which atoms are present and exactly how many in a substance
Chemical Equation the representation of a chemical reaction in words or symbols, this shows the scientist what happens over time during a chemical change, this includes reactants and products
Reactants The substances present before a reaction takes place
Products The substances formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Law of Conservation of Energy the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be changed from one form to another
Exothermic Reaction a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat
Endothermic Reaction a chemical reaction that absorbs energy, usually in the form of heat
Mixture A composition of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and are usually capable of being separated
Solution a mixture of 2 or more substances that are the same throughout, sugar in water is an example
Solute The name for the substance that is dissolved in a solution, in a solution of salt and water, the salt is the solute
Solvent the substance that dissolves the solute, generally the largest part of the solution, in a solution of salt and water, the water is the solvent
Concentration the amount of substance (solute) dissolved in a given volume of solution (solvent)- for example, the amount of salt dissolved in water
Acid a substance that increases the number of hydronium (H3O) ions in a solution, lemon juice in water is an example
Base a substance that increases the hydroxide (OH) ions in a solution, soap in water is an example
Salt compounds that can be formed during the reaction of an acid and a base, they are always a combination of a metal and a nonmetal
Neutralization Reaction the reaction between an acid and a base, the chemical combination is acid + base --> salt + water
Created by: jdipofi