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WGU Ethics Mod. 4

WGU Ethics terms

QuestionAnswer
What is an organized system of beliefs regarding the spiritual or metaphysical world, generally offering a moral code, and a philosophy of life. Religion
What melds and fuses beliefs from other religious traditions into its own theology and ethics. A syncretic religion
What is it called... advances the idea that morality is whatever God (or the gods) command. God's will becomes the foundation of ethics. The Divine Command Theory
What is a belief that morality depends on God. The Divine Command Theory
What states that God (or gods) determine(s) what is morally right and wrong. A system where God’s will becomes the foundation of morality. The Divine Command Theory
It offers an objective metaphysical foundation for morality. Is this an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory? advantage
. It answers the question: why be moral? (To please God, to avoid punishment, gain reward). Is this an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory? advantage
It encourages self-sacrifice, which might otherwise not occur, in response to God’s commands. Is this an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory? advantage
It requires God’s existence be accepted to give His commands authority, and/or that a given text or scripture be proven divine. Is this an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory? disadvantage
It allows for the possibility of abhorrent acts because Divine Command Theory is an arbitrary morality, based solely on God’s commands (and what if God commands torture?)Is this an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory? disadvantage
It is not the only source of morality (people choose other theories or approaches), which suggests that morality is not exclusively what God wills. Is this an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory? disadvantage
Is it an advantage or disadvantage of Divine Command Theory that it depends on believing in God or accepting a sacred text. disadvantage
What goes back to the Greeks, and still a part of Catholic theology today? The Theory of Natural Law
What maintains that God, or nature, has established universal laws and principles from which the norms of all human behavior must be derived. The Theory of Natural Law
What is founded on the idea that everything in nature exists for a reason. The world is inherently rational. Natural Law
What describe not only things as they are but how they ought to be. Rain is good (God designed rain to grow crops for humans to eat); drought is evil--it goes against what God intended in His organization of the world. Natural Law
What is the built-in contradiction to Natural Law? human reasoning
This is part of the natural order, leads to the understanding that the natural order of the world can not be the sole basis for morality or for value judgments. human reasoning
What says that moral knowledge and religious knowledge are separate because we are endowed with reason? Theory of Natural Law
What is the world has a natural order with purpose and values built into it. Natural Law
What is how things are and how they ought to be? Natural Law
What belief suggests reincarnation will provide an escape from human misery; we are meant to live according to our dharma? (role). Hinduism
What is very nearly the oldest religion on record. Hinduism
What is the third largest religious group in the world. Hinduism
What religion can choose to worship any one of many gods. Hinduism
What religion are vegetarians because of their belief in reincarnation. Hinduism
What religion has Sacred writings – Vedas; Bhagavad-Gita; Upanishads? Hinduism
What religion has the caste system? Hinduism
What religion has the way to act – World-denying; moderation; temperance in pursuit of goals. Hinduism
What religion believes in recarnation & karma? Hinduism
The place(country) where they practice Hinduism? India
“divine song” or “song of the Divine One” is called Bhagavad-Gita
“divine song” or “song of the Divine One” is part of a very long epic poem called the Mahabharata
What has become a spiritual classic. Bhagavad-Gita
What is the name of the god associated with the sun, represents the force of preservation in the universe. Vishnu
What god today is the most important object of devotion in India and associated with loving-kindness. Vishnu
Who is a form of a god Vishnu? Krishna
Who says, “There is nothing nobler than a righteous war.” Krishna
Who is the third of the Trimurti and the god linked with destruction. Shiva
As he dances, who is surrounded by a ring of fire, which shows his ability to destroy and transform. Shiva
Who is a dangerous god of mountains and winds (“lucky”). Shiva
What is the great epic called? Ramayana
What is a division of society into social classes that are created by birth or occupation. Caste system
(Can or Can’t) change the caste into which you are born, it is believed that a good life in one’s present caste will guarantee rebirth in a higher caste or better circumstances. Can't
Social classes in Hinduism is called? Varna
What name means knowledge or sacred lore. Vedas
What is the good and evil a person does will return either in this life or in a later one. Karma
This is what determines the direction of one’s rebirth. Karma
What is economic security and power, part of life’s goals? Artha
What is pleasure, part of life’s goals Kama
What is our role, social and religious duty, part of life’s goals Dharma
What means “freedom” or “liberation” and comes from a root that means “to be released.” The ultimate human goal. Moksha
What are the life's goals in Hinduism? Artha, Kama, Dharma, & Moksha
What religion stresses propriety, honor, and loyalty in fulfilling one's role in society. Confucianism
What religion has spirits; souls; veneration(worship) of ancestors Confucianism
What religion believes in "The Way" but people need to be educated. Confucianism
What religion has Five Classics, Four books for sacred writings? Confucianism
What religion has the way to act – Five Great Relationships? Confucianism
What religion after life belief emphasis is on how one spends one’s life; death isn’t that important. Confucianism
What place was not a single empire but a group of small kingdoms when Confucius was born. China
A Confucian guide to proper human behavior is called? Five Great Relationships
Father-son, Elder brother-younger brother, Husband-wife, Elder-younger, & Ruler-subject are all part of what? Five Great Relationships
What religion sees living by "The Way" as a path to inner harmony, peace, and longevity. Daoism
What religion observations about nature, philosophical insights, guidelines for living, exercises for health, ritual of protection, and practices for attaining longevity and inner purity. Daoism
What religion is the founder: Laozi (Lao Tzu) virginal conception. Daoism
What religion believes in “The way”; deities (gods); immortals Daoism
What religion believes in the Infinite; forces such as yin and yang; divination. Daoism
What religion has sacred writings – Dao de jing Daoism
What religion believes People are outside of experience of the world, must become one with natural forces. Daoism
What religion has the way to act – Effortlessness, simplicity, gentleness, relativity. Daoism
What religion afterlife beliefs – Can become one with all things. Daoism
What is the name: as a path to inner harmony, peace, and longevity. This is the name for whatever mysterious reality makes nature to be what it is and to act the way it does Dao “The Way”
What says the Dao is the origin of everything and that all individual things are “manifestations” of the Dao. The Daodejing
What religion began in ancient India and emphasizes dualism, spiritual independence and non-violence, has influenced Buddhism and Hinduism. Jainism
What religion has no god; eternal universe Jainism
What religion has dualistic; two sides to people, nature. Jainism
What religion has sacred writings – Agamas Jainism
What religion has two parts, one seeks pleasure and one seeks detachment from the world. Jainism
What religion has the way to act – Nonviolence, non-lying, non-stealing, chastity, nonattachment. Jainism
What religion has no afterlife beliefs? Jainism
What religion is known for its extreme measures in the pursuit of ahimsa (non-injury)? Jainism
What is not hurting living being (do no harm) Nonviolence called. Ahimsa
What religion offers enlightenment through meditation and for some, through devotion to deities. Buddhism
What religion has no god? Buddhism
What religion believes change is eternal, suffering, rebirth Buddhism
What religion has sacred writings- Tripitaka; Mahayana Sutras; Tibetan Book of the Dead. Buddhism
What religion believes desire causes suffering? Buddhism
What religion has the way to act – To behave rightly in all matters of body, soul, work and relationships. Buddhism
What religion afterlife beliefs – Rebirth and karma Buddhism
Who came from India, a wealthy prince before he attained enlightenment, and became Buddha. Siddhartha
What is the Awakened One, taken from a Sanskrit word meaning “to wake up.” The Buddha
What is suffering exists, it has a cause, it has an end, and there is a way to attain release from suffering? The Four Noble truths
How can the four noble truths be attained? By following the noble eightfold path
What are the Buddhist sacred writings (newer writings but in reality they were imaginative, colorful creations written at least several centuries after the Buddha lived) called. Mahayana sutras
The way to inner peace by Buddhism. Is by... Eight Fold Path
Right understanding, Right intention, Right speech, Right action, Right work, Right effort, Right meditation, & Right contemplation. These are what? Eight Fold Path
Should the eight steps of the fold path be done all together? Yes
What is end of suffering, inner peace, and liberation from the limitation of the world called. Nirvana
What is believed to end karma and rebirth after the present life called? Nirvana
What religion believes in Nirvana, eight fold path, meditation, and reincarnation. Buddhism
How do you reach nirvana recommended by Buddhism? following the Noble Eightfold Path
What encompasses techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. Meditation
What is profound understanding [Awakening (bodhi)]called. Enlightenment
What is the belief of many Eastern religions that our soul lives multiple lifetimes, being reborn after death. Reincarnation
What religion borrows from Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Christian beliefs about nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance. Gandhianism
What religion has Hindu-based ideology Gandhianism
What religion has no divine knowledge attachment? Gandhianism
What religion has no sacred writings or human nature? Gandhianism
What religion has the way to act – Non-violence at all times even if being physically harmed. Gandhianism
What religion afterlife beliefs is Reincarnation. Gandhianism
What religion has practical wisdom and passive restraint Gandhianism
What religion(s) believe in one God. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
from the teachings of who, a major 20th century political and spiritual leader in India. Mohandas K. Gandhi
Believing in one God is called? Monotheistic
What religion does Jewish moral teaching instructs believers to follow the Ten Commandments and other commandments in the Torah and Talmud. Judaism
What religion take to heart this idea: "The world rests on three things: justice, truth, and peace"? Judaism
What religion does righteousness encompasses benevolence and charity. Judaism
Orthodox Jews follow rabbinic religious law called? halakhah
What religion is nearly as old as Hinduism Judaism
What religion believes Jesus birth was normal not from a virgin. Judaism
What religion doesn’t believe Christ was resurrected but does believe that He will have a second coming. Judaism & Islam
What religion received through Prophets, recorded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) and Talmud. Judaism
What religion has the way to act - Follow the Ten Commandments Judaism
Hebrew Bible includes the first 5 books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. This is the sacred core of the Hebrew Bible. Torah
What religion has the Torah, Kabbalah, and Halakhah Judaism
What is the whole body of Jewish mystical literature meaning “received,” “handed down” called? Kabbalah
What religion are guided by the Ten Commandments, the Sermon on the Mount, and the Golden Rule. Christianity
What religion has the greatest number of adherents worldwide Christianity
What religion believes Jesus birth was born of a virgin Christianity
What religion belief is that Christ is resurrected and He will have a second coming. Christianity
What religion Received through Prophets and Jesus, recorded in the Bible (Old and New Testaments). Christianity
What religion The way to act - Follow the Golden Rule: "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets." Christianity
What religion study the Sermon on the Mount: the Beatitudes ("Blessed are the poor...") and the Lord's Prayer. Christianity
What religion Correct beliefs, faith, good deeds, receive sacraments (such as baptism); strive for Christ-like perfection. Christianity
What is based on the laws of the Apostles which is looked to by Catholics. Canon law
What is divine moral imperatives given to the prophet Moses. Love God and Love thy neighbor. The Ten Commandments
What is "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets." (Matthew 7:12). Golden Rule
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ In Culture Theory: a kind of other worldly pietism. Christ against culture
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ In Culture Theory: a Christianity which casts a gospel glow over the existing order and hardly challenges it. The Christ of culture
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ In Culture Theory: makes a sharp separation between God’s kindly rule in the Church and his stern rule (for the sake of order) in public life. Christ and culture in paradox
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ In Culture Theory: meaning a triumphalist church which seeks control over public life. Christ above culture
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ In Culture Theory: : a leaven in a lump of personal and public life which allows for a legitimate autonomy of secular disciplines and seeks to influence but not necessarily to control institutions. Christ transforming culture
What religion has believers adhere to the teachings of Mohammad in the Qur’an and look to follow the Five Pillars Islam
What religion has the second greatest number of adherents worldwide. Islam
What religion doesn’t believe Christ was resurrected but does believe that He will have a second coming. Islam & Judaism
What religion received through Mohammed, recorded in Qur'an Islam
What religion has the way to act - "Command the good and forbid the evil." Follow Five Pillars. Islam
What religion has religious law, Sharia, contains special instructions for day-to-day behavior, including dietary restrictions (no pork, no intoxicants), and other conduct? Islam
Who was a messenger of God. 1st to lead the Muslims Prophet Muhammad (d. 632)
"Command the good and forbid the evil." Islamic sacred writing. Muslim sacred book is called. Qur’an
Do all Muslims must accept and practice the Five Pillars? Yes
Professing the creed (Shahadah); prayer (Salat); charity to poor (Zakat); fasting during Ramadan (Sawm); pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj). Islamic guide to proper human behavior. Are what? Five Pillars
Laws governing behavior- Which means “way” or “the path” contains special instructions for day-to-day behavior. Islamic religious law is called. Sharia
(“faction”) Shiite Islam believes that the legitimate succession was hereditary, descending from the immediate family of Muhammad. This is called? Shi’a tradition
A God-given, hereditary spiritual power, called the Light of Muhammad
According to what tradition, the last Imam, Muhammad as-Mahdi, did not die but entered a hidden realm from which he works by guiding Shiite scholars and leaders. Shi’a tradition
Who believe in reincarnation and in addition to Muslim holidays, they celebrate Christmas and Epiphany. Islam
What religion believes in Prophet Muhammad (d. 632), Qur'an, Five Pillars, Sharia, Shi'a traditon, and Sunni tradition Islam
What refers to the entire body of traditional teachings that are based on the life and teachings of Muhammad, as given in the Qur’an and the authoritative hadiths. Sunni tradition
Created by: ldepaepe