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Theatre Exam 2

CH 5-10 Theatre the Lively Art - Wilson/ Goldfarb

Imitation To simulate or copy behavior observed in real life
Heart of theatre experience partnership btw actors & audience
2 examples of acting in daily life imitation & role playing
role playing in everyday life, the acting out of a particular role by copying the expected social behavior of that position
2 categories of role playing social & personal
social roles (role playing) father, mother, child, police officer, store clerk, teacher, student, physician. Expect certain types of behavior from these people
conscious raising making people aware of sexist social attitudes towards women
personal roles (role playing) roles w/ family & friends - boasting, bragging, embellishing truth, conspirators, dominant-submissive-passive
*3 challenges of acting 1) make characters believable (inner truth), 2) physical acting (voice/ body), 3) synthesis & integration (inner/outer skills)
*realism an attempt to present onstage ppl & events corresponding to those in everyday life
*Stanislavski System relaxation, concentration/ observation, specifics, inner truth, action onstage (what, why, how), through line of role, ensemble playing
*Stanislavski's relaxation state of freedom & relaxation w/ fluid & lifelike movement that seems effortless.
*Stanislavski's importance of specifics emphasis on concrete details, character must exist w/ given circumstances. Feel the moment
*Stanislavski's inner truth internal or subjective world of characters - thoughts/ emotions
*Magic if Stanislavski's acting exercise, which requires performers to ask "How would I react if I were in this character's position?"
*Stanislavski's Action onstage: What? Why? How? all action onstage must have a purpose. Attention must be focused on physical actions linked together by circumstances
*Superobjective/ through line of a role What the character wants above all else during the course of the play
*Stanislavski's through line of a role to develop continuity in a part, actor must find superobjective of character. Their driving force
*Stanislavski's ensemble playing playing together of all performers
*ensemble playing acting that stresses the total artistic unity of a group performance rather than individual performances
*Stanislavski's psychophysical action 2nd phase: Rather than seeing emotions as leading to action, this was purposeful action to fulfill a character's goals - for emotions
emotional recall Stanislavski: helps performer to present realistic emotions. Feels emotion by thinking of conditions surrounding event in own life
*Lee Strasberg founder of actor's studio in NYC, emphasized Stanislavski's emotional recall techinique
*biomechanics Russion director Vsevolod Meyerhold's program emphasizing physical exercises & full control of the body
*centering way of pulling everything together& allowing performer to eliminate any blocks impeding body or voice
outer aspects of character walk, posture, vocal delivery, hairstyle, or makeup
inner aspects of a character feelings & emotions
Onstage acting vs acting in everyday life Stage: always observed by audience, playing roles which may not have direct experience w/ like might in life
poetic devices meter, imagery, alliteration
*director person responsible for overall unity of a production & coordinating work of contributing artists.
*American director is equivalent of British______ & French ______ producer/ metteur-en-scene
*3 approaches to directing traditional, auteur, & postmodern
*traditional approach to directing (duties) text-based method: chooses script,spine of play, style, concept & period-image-purpose
*spine aka main action, determined by goal, or primary objective, of characters in play collectively & individually
naturalism attempts to put on stage exact copies of everyday life; sometimes also called "slice of life"
style in theatrical production the way a play is presented
heightened realism aka selective realism: refers to plays in which characters & their actions resemble real life but a certain license is allowed for other elements in the play
realism middle ground btw naturalism & heightened, or selective, realism
nonrealism departures from realism: fantasy, poetic drama, musical theatre, absurdist theatre, symbolism
allegory nonrealism: symbolic representation of abstract themes through characters, action, & other concrete elements of a play
expressionism nonrealism: attempt in drama to depict the subjective state of a character or group of characters through shush nonrealistic techniques as distortion, striking images, & poetic language
2 things essential when director arrives at a style for production 1) should be appropriate for the play, 2) should be consistent throughout every aspect of the production
*directorial concept controlling idea, vision, or point of view that the director feels is appropriate for the play; it should create a unified theatrical experience for the audience
*shape of time rhythm, movement, pace of play
*Duke of Saxe Meinengen 1st director in the 1800's
auteur French term for author. When describing director, suggests one who makes drastic alterations & transformations to a traditional script
modern production aesthetics organic unity, single view, single viewer approach, shared values of audience, metaphorical or representational, linear, closeness, time is singularly staged, space is unified
postmodern production aesthetics interdisciplinary, no single view can predominate, multiperspective - multifocus, multicultural, presentational, nonlinear - simultaneous, distance, multiple time frames presented simultaneously, space fragemented simultaneously conceived.
*casting fitting performers into roles
typecasting when performer closely resembles in real life the character to be enacted
casting against type deliberately putting someone into a role who does not appear right for part
*audition actors read scenes from play or perform portions of script
*blocking pattern & arrangement of performers' movements onstage w/ respect to ea other & to the stage space, usually set by director
visual composition & stage pictures physical arrangement of performers onstage
Director gives shape & structure to play in 2 ways space & time
*"time" movement, pace, & rhythm
*technical rehearsal rehearsal that focuses on running through the production w/ scenery, props, lighting, costumes, & sound for 1st time
*dress rehearsal 1st full performances of a production b4 performances for the public.
*previews tryout performances of a production b4 an audience, preceding the official "opening" performance
*producer (american) person responsible for business side of production, including $.
*producer (british) equivalent to american director
managing director in nonprofit theatre orgs, individual who controls resources & expenditures
*commercial producer responsibilities raising $, securing rights to script, dealing w/ agents, hiring, dealing w/ unions, theatre space, supervising those running theatre, supervising advertising, overseeing budget
executive director or managing director in noncommercial theatre person w/ many of same responsibilities as producer
front of house portion of theatre reserved for the audience; sometimes called simply "house"
*proscenium stage arch or frame surrounding the stage opening in a box or picture stage w/ audience facing 1 direction - KCKCC theatre
*arena stage stage entirely surrounded by the audience; aka circle theatre or theatre-in-round - Sprint Center
*thrust stage stage space that thrusts into the audience space; a stage surrounded on 3 sides by audience seating - Barney stage
*black box theatre space open, flexible, & adaptable, usually w/o fixed seating. Audience configuration can be moved around.
*fourth wall convention, in a proscenium-arch theatre, that the audience is looking into a room through an invisible 4th wall
*rake 1) to position scenery on a slant or at an angle other than parallel or perpendicular to curtain line, 2) upward slope of the stage floor away from audience
*orchestra 1) in American usage, ground-floor seating in an auditorium, 2) Circular playing space in ancient Greek theatres
*box small private compartment for group of spectators built into walls of traditional proscenium-arch theatre
stage house stage floor & the space around it to the side walls, as well as the space above it up to the grid
*arena stage circle stage or theatre-in-the-round; audience surrounds the stage area on all sides
*platform stage elevated stage w/ no proscenium, sometimes called a trestle stage.
*wagon stage low platform mounted on wheels or casters by means of which scenery is moved on- and offstage
*corral stage theatre building of the Spanish golden age, usually located in the courtyard of a series of adjoining buildings.
*site-specific companies theatre groups that create productions for specific nontheatre locations
*multifocus theatre an environment in which there is more than one playing area
*play a large part in setting the tone of an event atmosphere & environment of theatre space
*5 basic stage & auditorium arrangements proscenium, arena, thrust, created or found space, & all-purpose or "black box" spaces
*affect the environment of a production size & location (indoors/ outdoors), along w/ shape & character of a theatre building.
*scene designer creates the visual world in which a play unfolds. Decides colors, shapes, visual style.
*scene designer's objective set tone/ style, establish locale/ period, develop design concept, provide central image or metaphor, ensure scenery coordinated, solve practical design problems
realism an attempt to present onstage ppl, places, & events corresponding to those in everyday life
nonrealism aka departures from realism; all types of theatre that depart from observable reality
*5 elements of scene design line, mass, composition, texture, color, rhythm, movement
*Line (scene design) outline or silhouette of elements onstage
*Mass (scene design) overall bulk or weight of scenic elements
*Composition (scene design) balance & arrangement of elements, way they are arranged
*Texture (scene design) the "feel" projected by surfaces & fabrics
*Color (scene design) shadings & contrasts of color combinations
ground plan blueprint or floor plan of the stage indicating placement of scenery, furniture, doors & windows, & various levels of the stage
stage right right side of the stage from the point of view of a performer facing audience
stage left left side of the stage from the point of view of a performer facing audience
stage area near audience, front of stage downstage
stage area away from audience, back of stage upstage
everything out of sight of the audience offstage
stage area in center centerstage
wagon low platform mounted on wheels or casters by means of which scenery is moved on & offstage
turntable circle set into the floor of a stage, rotated mechanically or electronically to being 1 set into view as other disappears
*fly loft space above stage where scenery may be lifted out of sight by ropes & pulleys
*flat scenic unit consisting of canvas stretched on a wooden frame often used w/ similar units to create a set
*scrim thin, open-weave fabric which is nearly transparent when lit from behind & opaque when lit from front
prop properties; objects that are used by performers onstage or are necessary to complete a set
*rendering complete drawing of a set, usually in color
CAD computer-assisted design. Designs created by computer.
*technical director staff member responsible for scheduling, construction, & installation of all equipment. Executes designs as specified.
property designer creates & executes all props
scenic charge artist responsible for seeing that sets are built & painted according to specifications of scene designer
paint charge artist person in charge of painting set
*everyday forms of scene design planned decor of restaurant, hotel lobby, apartment
special effects elements of scenery, lighting, costumes, props, or sound that appear highly unusual or miraculous.
*Things that clothes signal or indicate regarding wearer position/ status, sex, occupation, flamboyance/ modesty, independence/ regimentation, work/leisure/special event
*objectives of costume design establish style, indicate period, indicate nature of character, show relationships, convey significance, meet needs of performer, consistent w/ production
*stitchers technicians who sew all of the costumes for a production
*drapers technicians who pattern, pin, & drape fabric to fit the actors in a production perfectly
*pull to choose a costume from inventory owned by a theatre co or costume wearhouse
*build to create a costume from scratch in a costume shop
distressing making a costume look weathered or worn
*Properties of stage lighting intensity, color, distribution, movement
*motivated sound sounds called for by the script like guns, or dog howling
*environmental sounds noises of everyday life that help create a sense of reality in a production, like rain or wind
* sound reinforcement amplification of sounds produced by a performer or a musical instrument
*lighting design is intended to provide illumination onstage, establish time & place, help set mood & style, focus action, establish rhythm of visual movement
*rehearsals After casting, director supervises all rehearsals and help guide performance.
*found space stage Found space - street, building, etc.
*triple threat sing, act, dance
*method acting like Stanislavski, actor drums up a time where they experienced similar emotions to bring up the emotions needed in role
*technical acting actor becomes the person they are playing and gets emotions from how character would feel at that particular time
*the paradox of the actor Diderot - different than method or technical, should render emotions from a parallel character to role
*dramaturg literary manager that finds or helps develop new plays for director
*stage pictures physical arrangement of performers onstage
*run-through full performance from beginning to end w/ all props & scene changes
*Non-commercial Theatre nonprofit theatres
*Commercial Theatre for-profit
*Stage manager production: director & technical assistant, performance: responsible for production and cues
*Artistic director responsible for creating the artistic vision
*theatre in the round stage audience surrounds the stage area
*aesthetic distance space between audience and actors
*collaborators for scene design playwright, director, scene designer, technical director, scenic design, stage mgr, design assist, technicians
*process for scene design Gets ideas from script & develops ideas, director/designer meet compare ideas, thumbnail sketches, when agree - rendering (color), CADs
*costume designer designs/ selects appropriate costuming for actors
*elements of costume design 1)line, shape, silhouette, 2)color, 3)fabric, 4)accessories
*related elements of costume design makeup, hairstyles and wigs, masks
*lighting design in theatre history used daylight 1st 2000 yrs, then candles, then gas lights, then lighting. Most technical last 100 years.
*lighting designer's resources various stage lights, lighting controls, technical equipment, collaborators
*floodlights used singly on in groups, provides general illumination for stage or scenery. Can be blended, to set tone, or illumination
*cue any prearranged signal that indicates to performer or stage mgr that it is time to proceed to next line or action
*blackout all lights shut off at once
*fade one set of lights dim slowly, changing scene from brighter to darker
*cross-fade one set of lights comes down while another comes up
*split cross-fade lights coming up are on different fade count from ones going down. Most common
*backlighting light placed behind actor or object
*followspot powerful stage light typically used to highlight actors
*light plot like an architectural blueprint for the stage lighting
*gobo "go before" a light, breaks light to form patterns - like a cutout to produce a shadow of vines or
*focus sharp or diffused
*dimmers dim the lights
*composition of lighting designer uses lighting to paint a picture on stage
*sound reproduction amplification and sound effects creating sounds
*purists (sound) those that object to sound amplification in theatre
*sound design process reads script, determines where sound might be needed, finds the sounds, determines need for microphones, consults w/ director & other designers
*types of microphones in theatre body, head, shotgun, general
*shotgun mike highly directional & aimed from a distance at a specific area
*general mike picks up sounds in general area toward which it is aimed
*body mike wireless microphone attached to performer's body or clothing
*sound designer/ engineer must 1)prepare soundtrack, 2)place microphones & speakers, 3)mix recorded & live sounds during performance for effects
Created by: kld0519



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