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Skeletal & Ch.5

QuestionAnswer
How Many carpal bones do humans have? 16. 8 on each side.
Total # of phalanges(hand)? 28. 14 on each side.
Total # of metacarpals? 10. 5 on each side.
Total # of tarsals? 14. 7 on each side.
Total # of metatarsals? 10. 5 on each side.
Total # of phalanges(foot)? 28. 14 on each side.
Total # of bones in the cranium? 8
Total # of auditory ossicles? 6
Ulnar deviation? To turn or bend toward the ulnar side.
Radial Deviation? To turn or bend toward the radial side.
Dorsiflexion? Decrease the angle between dorsal aspect of foot and ankle.
Plantar flexion? Extending the ankle joint. Pointing toes away from body.
Eversion? Outward stress movement of the foot at the ankle joint. Only done by a doctor.
Inversion? Inward stress movement of the foot at the ankle joint. Only done by a doctor.
Medial Rotation? Moving the anterior part of the body toward the inside/median.
Lateral Rotation? Moving the anterior part of the body toward the outside/lateral.
Abduction? Lateral movement away from the body(arm or leg).
Adduction? Movement toward the body(arm or leg).
Supination? Rotational movement of the hand into the anatomic position. Only done with hand.
Pronation? Rotation of the hand palm down.
Axial projection? Refers to the long axis of a structure or part used to describe any angle of the CR more than 10 degrees along the axis of the body.
Tangential projection? Touching a curve or surface at only one point-skimming a body part to project it into profile and away from other body structures.
Routine/Basic projections? Those projections commonly taken on all average patients who can cooperate fully.
Special/Alternate projections? Those projections most commonly taken to better demonstrate specific anatomic parts on a patient that cannot cooperate fully.
What is the basic requirement for any x-ray procedure? A minimum of two projections taken at 90* angles from each other. AP or PA and lateral.
How many projections are required when a joint is the area of interest? A minimum of three. AP or PA, lateral, and oblique.
Oblique? Any angle between 0-90. An angled posidtion in which neither the sagittal nor the coronal planes are at right angles to the IR.
Position? Patients general physical position.
Projection? The path of the central ray?
Ap Axial projrection-Lordotic position? Specific AP chest projection for demonstrating the apices of the lungs. The long axis of the body is angled rather than the CR.
Lordosis? "Swayback". Type of curvature, most commonly of the lumbar spine region.
Kyphosis? "Humpback". Type of curvature, most usually of the thoracic spine region.
Scoliosis? Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Recumbent position? Lying in any position the patient chooses.
Trendelenburg position? Lying with head below feet.
Fowler position? Lying with head above the feet.
Sim's position? Lying on the left side with right leg in frot of left. (Barium enema position)
Lithomy position? Supine with hips and knees flexed(gyn).
Decubitus position? To lie on a horizontal surface and is described by the surface on which the body is resting-back(dorsal), front(ventral), side(right or left lateral). Always used with a horizontal beam in x-ray.
Why is it essential to use the decubitus position to detect air fluid levels in the lungs? Air rises and fluid sinks in the body.
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the VERTEBRA PROMINENS? C7-T1
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the JUGULAR NOTCH? T2-3
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the STERNAL ANGLE? T4-5
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the XIPHOID PROCESS? T9-10
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the INFERIOR COSTAL RIB MARGIN? L2-3
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the ILLIAC CREST? L4-5 interspace
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILLIAC SPINE(ASIS)? S1-2
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the GREATER TROCHANTER? Distal coccyx
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the SYMPHYSIS PUBIS? One inch inferior to coccyx.
What is the corresponding vertebral level for the ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY? 1-2 inches inferior to distal coccyx.
Simple Fracture? Bone breaks cleanly, but does not penetrate the skin. Sometimes called a closed fracture.
Compound or Open Fracture? Broken ends of the bone protrude through soft tissues and the skin. May result in serious bone infection.
Comminuted Fracture? Bone fragments into many pieces(2 or more). Common in old people whose bones are more brittle.
Compression FractureCompression Fracture? Bone is crushed. Only in spine.
Depressed Fracture? Broken bone portion is pressed inward. Only in skull.
Impacted Fracture? Broken bone ends are forced into each other.
Spiral Fractures? Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Common sports fracture.
Greenstick Fracture? Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks. Most common child fracture.
The integumentary system consists of? The skin, hair, nails, and various glands.
What are the 5 major functions of integumentary system? Protection, Temperature maintenance, Synthesis and storage of nutrients, Sensory reception, Excretion and Secretion.
How many layers is there in thick skin and where is it found? Found on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It contains 5 layers(thickness of the epidermis only).
How many layers is there in thin skin and where is it found? Covers all of the body except for the palms of hands and soles of feet. Contains 4 layers(thickness of the epidermis only).
Stratum corneum? The most superficial layer of the epidermis and it consists of 15-30 layers of dead epithelial cells.
Keratin? Extremely durable and water resistant. Coats the surface of the skinbut also forms the basic structure of hair, calluses, and nails.
What are two pigments that the epidermis contains? Carotene and Melanin.
Carotene? An orange-yellow pigment that normally accumulates in epidermal cells.
Melanin? Brown, yellow-brown, or black pigment produced by melanocytes. Helps prevent skin damage by absorbing UV radiation before it reaches the deep layers of the epidermis and dermis.
Melanocytes? Manufacture and store melanin within intracellular vesicles.
Cyanosis? When the skin takes on a bluish coloration due to skin loosing oxygen. Most apparent in lips, ears, or beneath nails.
Papillary layer? Consists of loose connective tissue that supports and nourishes the epidermis. Contains capillaries and nerves supplying the surface of the skin.
Reticular layer? Consists of interwoven meshwork of dense, irregular connective tissue. Provide flexability.
Hypodermis? Contains no vital organs and few capillaries. Useful method for administering drugs.
Keloid? Thickened area of scar tissue covered by a shiny, smooth, epidermal surface.
5 Primary functions of the skeletal system? Support, Storage, Blood cell production, Protection, Leverage.
What are the outer surfaces of bone covered by? Periosteum
What lines the marrow cavity and other inner surfaces? Endosteum
What are the three primary cell types that occur in bone? Osteocytes, Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts
Osteocytes? Maintain normal bone structure by recycling the calcium salts in the bony matrix around themselves and by assisting in repairs.
Osteoclasts? Release stored minerals andhelp regulate calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids.
Osteoblasts? Responsible for the production of new bone.
The process of replacing other tissues with bone is called? Ossification
Most of the bones of the skeleton are formed through? Endochondral ossification
What are the two divisions the skeletal system is divided into? Axial and appendicular divisions
Inverse Square Law Describes how the intensity of the radiation gets less as you get further from the source and increases the closer to the source you get.
15% Rule If kVp is increased by 15% density will be double image receptor exposure. If kVp is decreased by 15% density will be 1/2 image receptor exposure.
Density Maintenance Formula There is a direct relationship. The formula to compensate for a necessary change in distance. Increase distance= Increased technical factors to compensate and vice versa. SID increases -> mAs increases.
If you 1/2 mAs it is equal to ______ density. 1/2x
If you 2x mAs it is equal to______ density. 2x
If you increase 15% kVp it is equal to______ density. Doubling; 2x
If you decrease 15% kVp it is equal to ______ density. Halving; 1/2x
If you increase 15% kvp and 2x mAs it is equal to ______ density. 4x
If you decrease 15% kvp and 2x mAs it is equal to______ density. Equal or the same
Contrast Difference between adjacent densities on a radiograph.
Density Degree of darkening of exposed and processed photographic or radiographic film.
What does ALARA stand for and what is the definition? As Low As Reasonably Achievable. Mnemonic meaning to keep radiation exposures as low as possible.
What are the 3 cardinal rules and which is the best one for reducing radiation to us? Time, distance, and shielding. Distance is the best one for us.
If you double your distance what happens to the intensity of the beam? Intensity decreases 1/4 of the original.
What accounts for almost 2/3 of the weight of bone? Calcium phosphate
What are the 5 general shapes of the bones in a human skeleton? Long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, sessamoid bones.
Where are sessamoid bones found? tendons: ex. patella, in thumb and big toe
What do tendons attach? muscle to bone
What do ligaments attach? bone to bone
Bone Trabeculae Webbing effect we look for on an x-ray.
Lamellae Calcified matrix that is cylendrical and oriented parallel to the long axis of the central canal.
What is the basic functional unit of compact bone? osteon
When does skeletal growth begin? 6 weeks after fertilization.
Ossification The process of replacing other tissues with bone.
Most of the bones are formed through _______? Endochondral ossification
Open Reduction The limb has to be surgically opened to have the bone put back to normal.
Closed Reduction No surgery required to set the bone. Doctors set the fracture and put it in a cast.
Internal Fixation Things placed inside the bone to put it back together. Ex. rods and screws.
Pathalogic Fracture Fracture due to a disease. Ex. osteoporosis.
Smiths Fracture Distal radius is fractured anteriorly.
Colles Fracture Distal radius is fractured posteriorly.
Fracture hematoma A large blood clot that forms where bone is fractured.
How long does remodeling of spongy bone at the fracture site take? 4 months to 1 year
Osteopenia Inadequate ossification. All humans become slightly osteopenic as we age.
True Ribs are what #'s? 1-7
False Ribs are what #'s? 8-12
Created by: gsxrgirl99