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Neuro BM 06/09

What is the CNS composed of? brain, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord
What is the PNS composed of? all other nervous tissue including Spinal and Cranial nerves
What are the types of nerve cells? Afferent, Efferent and Interneurons
What do afferent nerves do? Sensory Neurons: Recieve information from periphery abd transport it to the CNS
What do efferent nerves do? Motor Neurons: transmit information from spinal cord to extremities to signal muscles to produce movement
What do interneurons do? Connect two neurons and organize information and determine an appropriate response
What do dendrites do? receive information and transfer it to the cell body where it is processed
What does the cell body (soma) do? responsible for supporting functional activities, transmitting electochemical impulses and repairing cells
What do Axons do? transfer information away from cell body to other neurons, muscle cells or glands
What is Myelin and what does it do? A lipid/protein that incases and insulates axons. It increases the speed of impulse conduction
What are the spaces in the myelin sheath called? Nodes of Ranvier
What is saltatory conduction? When electrical impulses conduct along an axon by jumping from one node to the next
What is a Synapse? Space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of the next.
Where is white matter found? Inner surface of brain and outer surface of spinal cord
Where is gray matter found? Outer surface of brain and inner surface of spinal cord
What is white matter composed of? axon that are bundled together to form fiber tracts
What is gray matter composed of? Nerve cell bodies and dendrites.
What are the three main structures of the brain? Cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem
What is the Sulci? depressions in the cerebrum
what is the gyri? ridges in the cerebrum
what lobes are divided by the central sulcus frontal and parietal
what lobes are divided by the parieto-occipital sulcus? Parietal and occipital
where is the precentral gyrus and what does it contain? anterior to the central sulcus, contains the primary motor cortex
where is the postcentral gyrus and what does it contain? posterior to the central sulcus, contains the primary somatosensory cortex
What are the 3 meninges from outer to inner? Dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
What are ventricals? A system of 4 fluid filled cavities that supply the brain with cerebrospinal fluid
What is the structure that produces cerebrospinal fluid? Choroid Plexus
What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid? Protection, bouancy, excretion of waste, and transports hormones
What are the lobes of the cerebrum? frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
What are the functions of the Frontal Lobe? Voluntary control of complex motor activities, cognitive functions including judgement, attention, awareness, abstract thinking, mood and aggression, houses Broca's area.
What is Broca's Area responsible for? communication of expressive language
What does brocas area do in the left hemisphere? plans movements of the mouth to produce speech
what does brocas area do in the right hemisphere? nonverbal communication, gestures and tone of voice
What are the functions of the parietal lobe? percieves sensory information and attaches meaning to it; houses the homunculus; short-term memory
What is the homunculus? a mapping of specific body regions within the parietal lobe
What are the functions of the temporal lobe? houses Wernicke's area, visial perception, musical discrimination, long-term memory
What is Wernicke's area responsible for? Hearing and comprehending spoken language (receptice language)
What is the function of the occipital lobe? organizes, integrates and interprets visual information.
What are the functions of the Left hemisphere? Language productionword recognition/comprehensionprocess/analyze information in sequential , organized, mannermathmatecal calculationssequence and perform movement and gesturesexpress positive emotions (love and happiness)
What are the common impairments seen with Left hemisphere injury? Apraxiadifficulty initiating, sequencing and processing taskscompulsivedifficulty producing or comprehending speechpoor attention/ distractible
What are the functions of the Right hemisphere? Process verbal and nonverbal communicationbody image awarenessartistic abilitiesmake inferences and synthesize informationcomprehend general conceptscoordination and proprioceptionsustaining movement and postureexpress negative emotions
What are common impairments seen with right hemisphere injury? Impulsivepoor judgementunrealistic expectationsdenial of disabilitydisturbances in body imageirritabilitylethargy
What is the corpus collosum A group of axons that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres and allow communication between the two cortices
What is the Internal capsule? a deep structure within the cerebral hemisphere made up of axons that project from the cortex to the white matter below
What is the diencephalon and what is contained within it? a deep area within the cerebrum where the major sensory, visual, and auditory neurons synapse, Contains the thalamus and hypothalamus
What are the functions of the thalamus? central relay station for sensory impulsesreceives all sensory info except smellSenses pain and peripheral numbness
What are the functions of the hypo thalamus? regualates homeostasis: hunger, thirst, temperature, BP and wake/sleep cyclesintegrates function of the endocrine and nervous system
What is the Basal Ganglia? a concentration of nerve cells at the base of the cerebrum
What does the Basal Ganglia do? regulates posture and muscle tonecontrols volitional and automatic movement
What are common conditions seen with damage to the basal ganglia? Parkinson'sBradykinesiaAkinesiaRigidity
Created by: atolliver



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