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Science 3rd Quarter

If a cell cannot move enough material through it's membrane to survive, then the ratio of its surface area to volume is too small
Before a cell can proceed to mitosis from the gap 2 stage of the cycle, it must Pass a critical checkpoint
During interphase a cell grows, duplicates organelles, and Copies DNA
Why do the cells lining the stomach divide more quickly then those in the liver? They undergo more wear and tear
During which of the following stages does the cytoplasm of a cell divide? Mitosis
Kinases and cyclins are internal factors that Control the cell cycle
Proteins from outside a cell that stimulate it to divide are called Growth factors
Which statement describes this chromosome It is made up of two chromotids
In a single celled organism, mitosis is used for Reproduction
Which of the following is true of malignant tumors? They can cause tumors in other parts of the body
One difference between a cancer cell and a normal cell is that Cancer cells divide uncontrollably
Which statement about the process of binary fission is true? It does not take place in multicellular organisms
A plant's leaf consists of Various types of tissue
Cells in a developing embryo Their location in the embryo
Which organism is capable of reproduction through asexual mitosis? Starfish
Which sequence shows the progression from least complex structure to most complex structure? Cell-tissue-organ-organ system
Which phrase best describes an organ system? Group of organs that work together
Which of the following is a direct result of a normal cell's ability to express only certain genes? Cells can differentiate and specialize
Stem cells are important to multicellular organisms because of their Capacity to differentiate
Which type of stem cell can grow into any other cell type? Totipotent
The most common form of reproduction among prokaryotes is Binary fission
What is the main difference between binary fission and mitosis? There is no DNA replication in binary fission
Which of the following statements is true of asexual reproduction? It produces generally identical offspring
Starfish that reproduce by splitting into pieces are reproducing by Fragmentation
Vegetative reproduction, budding, and fragmentation are examples of Reproduction through binary fission
In which stage of the cell cycle do the nucleus and its contents divide? Mitosis
During the gap 1 stage of the new cell cycle, a cell Carries out its normal functions
Which of the following phrases best describes cytokinesis? Division of the cytoplasm
Which statement is true about the rates of cell division in eukaryotes? They vary greatly within an organism
Which of the following limits the maximum size of a cell? The ratio of cell surface area to volume
The processes of mitosis and cytokinesis produce two identical daughter cells
The process of organizing and condensing DNA into its compact form takes place at the start of Interphase
Which is the term for the group of proteins that organized and condenses long strands of DNA into tight coils? telomeres
During which phase of mitosis to sister chromatids seperate from each other? anaphase
Which of the following statements is true of cytokinesis? completes the cell cycle
Proteins that bind to cells and stimulate cell division are called growth factors
What is the term for the programmed death of cells? apoptosis
Two internal factors that are important in advancing the cell cycle are Phosphates and enzymes
Which phrase best describes cancer? Uncontrolled cell growth
Substances known to produce or promote cancer are called carcinogens
Two similar chromosomes that you inherit from your parents are called homologous chromosomes
Meiosis produces cells with how many chromosomes? 23
Which of the following cell types is diploid? Somatic cell
A distinguishing characteristic that can be inherited is a trait
Which of the following phrases describes the punnet square in figure 6.1? monohybrid heterozygous-heterozygous cross
Which of the following statements is true of a homozygous alleles? They are identical forms of the same gene.
Which law states that organisms inherit two copies of each gene and donate one copy to each of their offspring? Law of segregation
Mendel knew that the variations in the offspring generations resulted from his experiments because he controlled the fertilization process.
Which pair of genes in figure 6.2 would be most likely to be inherited together? A and B
Which event takes place during anaphase II of meiosis II? Sister chromatids seperate
Recessive alleles may not be expressed because they are Masked by a dominant allele
Mendel's second law of genetics, the law of independent assortment, is one explanation of the Genetic variation within species.
Which of the following events is an important factor in increasing variety among sexually reproducing organisms? crossing over
Mendel's observation that traits are inherited seperately was based on which set of experiments? dihybrid cross
Imagine two heterozygous parents. Each has a dominant allele X for brown eyes and a recessive allele x for blue eyes. The phenotypic ration for brown:blue eyes in their children is 3:1
A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell? somatic cell
How many chromosomes are in a human gamete? 23
Which of the following best describe the genetic material a person recieves from his or her father? 22 autosomes and an X or Y chromosome.
Which phrase best describes the process of meiosis? Produces haploid genetics
At fertilization, what happens to the sex cells? Their nuclei fuse to form one nucleus
Which of the following statements is true of homologous chromosomes? They contain the same genes
Which phrase best describes meiosis I? Division of homologous chromosomes
What happens to sister chromatids in meiosis II? They are divided
Gametogenesis is the term for The production of gametes
What does an egg contribute to the embryo that a sperm does not contribute? organelles
Which of the following is an example of a biological trait? eye color
Mendel began his experiments with purebred pea plants. This approach enabled him to determine that variations among offspring were the result of his crossings
When Mendel crossed plants that were purebred purple-flowered with plants that were purebred white-flowered, the resulting offspring all had purple flowers. When allowed to self-pollinate, this F1 generation gave rise to white-flowered plants as well as p pt 1
as purple. As a result, Mendel determined that individual traits are Inherited as dicrete units.
Mendel was able to identify predictable patterns of heredity. He succeeded mainly because he chose to study traits that only had two forms.
Which phrase best describes the term genome? The genes that make up an organism
Hair color and eye color are examples of a person's phenotype
When an organism has two alleles at a particular locus that are different, the organism is called heterozygous
If a pea plant were homozygous recessive for height, how would its alleles be represented? tt
An allele is dominant in a heterozygote when it is expressed and the other allele is not
What do the letters inside the grid of a Punnet square represnet? genotypes of offspring
What is the possibility that the offspring of a cross between a homozygous recessive parent and a heterozygous parent will be homozygous recessive? 1/2
The term for a cross that involves just one trait, such as pod shape, is called a monohybrid cross
What is the phenotypic ratio of a monohybrid cross between two heterozygous parents? 3:1
Which of the following observations did Mendel make as a result of his experiments with dihybrid crosses? Different traits are inherited seperately
About how many different contributions of chromosomes can be produced through the random fertilization of human gametes? 2^23x2^23
Which phrase best describes the process of crossing over? Pairs of homologous chromosomes exchange segments.
Suppose a gene that codes for flower color is linked with a gene that codes for leaf shape. Which statement is true of this pair of genes? They are close together on the same chromosome.
During what stage of meiosis does crossing over occur? Prophase I of meiosis I
Which of the following is a result of the study of gene linkage? The relative distances between genes can be calculated.
A person who has a disorder caused by a recessive allele is Homozygous for a recessive allele
Gene expression is influenced by many factors. Which of the following is a factor in gene expression? Environment
The Punnet square in figure 7.1 shows a cross between two parents who have the genotype Ss for a genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele. Which of the following will have the genetic disorder? ss offspring
Two parents have the genotype Gg for a genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele. What is the chance that any of their children will inherit the disorder? 75%
For an XX female to express a recessive sex-linked trait, she must have two recessive alleles.
Human height occurs in a continuous range because it is affected by the interaction of several genes, making it a polygenic trait
Suppose a mouse is homozygous for alleles that produce black fur and homozygous for alleles of an epistatic gene that prevents fur coloration. What color will the mouse have? All white
A female is born with attached earlobes which is a recessive phenotype. Which of the following genotypes could her parents have? Rr and rr
Some members of a family have a recessive sex-linked disorder. Which of the following statements about the family would be true? Only females would be carriers
What is the main reason that sex-linked disorders are most often observed in males? The Y chromosome cannot mask alleles on the X chromosome.
Most of the traits expressed in a person's phenotype are determined by autosomal genes
Which of the following phrases is true of X chromosome inactivation? occurs in cells of female mammals
A person who is heterozygous for a disorder caused by recessive alleles is a carrier of the disorder. A carrier is a person who Does not have the disorder but can pass it to the offspring
Genes that are located on sex chromosomes are called sex linked
Which statement is true of a sex-linked recessive gene? In an XY male, this recessive gene is always expressed.
Much of what we know about single-gene traits in humans is the result of studying genetic disorders
What is the main difference between the carrier of a sex-linked disorder and the carrier of an autosomal disorder? The carrier of a sex-linked disorder is always female but does not have the disorder
A chart that traces the phenotypes and genotypes within a family is called a pedigree
A genetic disorder is traced within a family. The disorder occurs mostly in males. The gene for this disorder is most likey on the X chromosome
Which of the following types of genetic information can be identified easily with a karyotype? homologous chromosomes
Unlike the traits studied by Mendel, most traits are produced by genes with multiple alleles
A plant that is homozygous for red flowers is crossed with a plant that is homozygous for white flowers. In the case of incomplete dominance, the flowers of the offspring will be pink only
In the case of codominant alleles, a plant that is homozygous for red flowers that is crossed with a plant that is homozygous for white flowers will produce flowers that are red and white spotted
Identical twins who are raised apart can have differences that last a lifetime. This is evidence that environment and genotype interact to affect phenotype
Which scientist used chemical analysis to show that the genetic material in bacteria is DNA? Oswald Avery
How did Hershey and Chase's use of radiolabeled bacteriophages to study the genetic material validate Avery's research? It demonstrated conclusively that the genetic material is not protein
The DNA double helix model used today is the product of research done by the scientists Watson and Crick
Suppose you can read the sequence of bases on only one strand of the double helix. What would you use to figure out the sequence on the other strand? base pairing rules
Which of the following is the site of the DNA replication in eukaryotes? nucleus
What does the DNA polymerase do during replication? Binds nucleotides together and corrects base pair errors
What message does mRNA carry? The genetic code that, when translated, forms proteins
When does replication occur? Once in every cell cycle
Crick's central dogma of molecular biology is essentially a summary of replication, transcription, and translation
How many amino acids are in the following sequence of mRNA nucleotides? CGAUACAGUAGC 4
When does mRNA processing take place? after transcription
The nucleotide sequences that are removed during mRNA processing are called introns
The LAC operon is an example of how gene regulation occurs in bacteria
Generally, mutations that affect a single gene occur during replication
Cystic fybrosis is an example of a genetic disease caused by the deletion of a nucleotide. What is the term for this type of mutation? frameshift
What is the term for the nucleotide sequences that are removed during mRNA introns
In prokaryotes, gene expression is regulated by controlling transcription
What is the main function of a promoter? Tells RNA polymerase where to start
What is the term for three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid? codon
How many amino acids are used to make up all of the proteins in the human body? 20
A tRNA that carries the amino acid methionine pairs with which type of codon? start codon
Which phrase best describes translation? Converts mRNA into a polypeptide
Which of the following is the site of translation? ribosome
The central dogma of molecular biology states that information flows in one direction from DNA to RNA to proteins
Choose the nucleotide sequences of the RNA strand that would be complementary to the following DNA strand: GTAGTCA CAUCAGU
The main function of tRNA is to Bring amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes
Which of the following events occur directly after RNA polymerase recognizes the transcription start site of a gene? The DNA strand begins to unwind, seperating the two strands
A primary difference between transcription and replication is that transcription Happens repeatedly throughout a single cell cycle
The process that makes an exact copy of a cell's DNA is called replication
What are the main function of DNA polymerase? Binds nucleotides and corrects base pair errors
Which of the following events occurs directly after a DNA molecule is unzipped? Free-floating nucleotides pair up with exposed bases
The process of making new DNA molecules is semiconservative. This means that every new DNA molecule is composed of one original and one new strand of DN
When new DNA molecules are formed, almost all errors are detected and fixed by DNA polymerase
The four types of nucleotides that make up DNA are named for their nitrogen-containing bases
Erwin Chargaff concluded what about the four bases? A=T and C=G
Which of the following DNA sequences in complementary to the base sequence ACCGTAT? TGGCATA
Combining the work of other scientists with their own research, Watson and Crick discovered that two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix
What holds base pairs together? Hydrogen bonds.
Created by: 171607