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WGU Ehtics Mod. 3

WGU Ethics terms

QuestionAnswer
This is the study of the moral values and conduct of an individual, group or culture. Ethics
Ethics is sometimes called _______, because it is employed to answer questions of morality. Moral philosophy
This is the attempt to achieve a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of us –in Socrates’ words ‘how we ought to live’, and why. Moral philosophy
Moral philosophers who are skeptical about the primate origins of human morality argue that non-human primates (can or cannot) consciously and rationally select right from wrong. cannot
Morality for ______ is about remembering a previous life. Plato
Who believed that our souls exist in some realm with the Forms and that is how we know them. Plato
Our souls have three parts what are they? reason, spirit, and appetite
Morally, Plato argued, we need Virtues, of which he focused on four what are they? Temperance, Courage, Wisdom and Justice
We need temperance to limit our ________. appetites
We need ______ to control our will which causes aggression. courage
What brings us the wisdom to keep our souls in harmony—not allowing one extreme to take over another? Reason
Ultimately, if we practice all of these virtues we achieve _______. Justice
This is the right or wrong of an action, decision, or way of living. Morality
The origins of philosophy can be traced back to early _______ wisdom, which embodied certain philosophies of life. Mesopotamian
The earliest form of logic was developed by the ________. Babylonians
This is the attempt to achieve a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of us –in Socrates’ words ‘how we ought to live’, and why. Moral philosophy
Moral philosophers who are skeptical about the primate origins of human morality argue that non-human primates can or cannot consciously and rationally select right from wrong. cannot
Morality for ______ is about remembering a previous life. Plato
Who believed that our souls exist in some realm with the Forms and that is how we know them. Plato
Our souls have three parts what are they? reason, spirit, and appetite
Morally, Plato argued, we need Virtues, of which he focused on four what are they? Temperance, Courage, Reason and Justice
We need temperance to limit our ________. appetites
We need ______ to control our will which causes aggression. courage
What brings us the wisdom to keep our souls in harmony—not allowing one extreme to take over another? Reason
Ultimately, if we practice all of these virtues we achieve _______. Justice
This is the right or wrong of an action, decision, or way of living. Morality
The origins of philosophy can be traced back to early _______ wisdom, which embodied certain philosophies of life. Mesopotamian
The earliest form of logic was developed by the ________. Babylonians
It means Ancient Iraq and land between the rivers (Tigris and Euphrates rivers) Mesopotamia
The pre-Socratic philosophers were primarily concerned with the _______ of the world. natural physical order
This is an early Egyptian text (circa 1600 BCE), described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife; some historians see it as a precursor to the Ten Commandments. Egyptian “Book of the Dead”
This is one of the earliest legal codes (circa 1760 BCE), established standards of behavior and listed crimes and their various punishments. Hammurabi’s Code
This was established by the 6th Babylonian King. Hammurabi’s Code
They applied to all Babylonians, including royalty. Hammurabi’s Code
This has 282. Hammurabi’s Code
Who is a hero-king and suggests that one “fulfills one’s destiny through service and fidelity to whatsoever becomes one responsibility. Gilgamesh
This is a long poem from ancient Mesopotamia recounting legends and myths about a hero-king. The Epic of Gilgamesh
This comprises the first five books (Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers and Deuteronomy) of the Hebrew Bible. The Torah
Also called the Tanakh. The Torah
It provides a legal and theological framework for life and an ethical system which consists of the Ten Commandments and other rules, such as 613 mitzvot (or “commandments”). The Torah
The pre-Socratic philosophers were primarily concerned with the _______ of the world. natural physical order
This is an early Egyptian text (circa 1600 BCE), described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife; some historians see it as a precursor to the Ten Commandments. Egyptian “Book of the Dead”
This is one of the earliest legal codes (circa 1760 BCE), established standards of behavior and listed crimes and their various punishments. Hammurabi’s Code
This was established by the 6th Babylonian King. Hammurabi’s Code
They applied to all Babylonians, including royalty. Hammurabi’s Code
This has 282. Hammurabi’s Code
Who is a hero-king and suggests that one “fulfills one’s destiny through service and fidelity to whatsoever becomes one responsibility. Gilgamesh
This is a long poem from ancient Mesopotamia recounting legends and myths about a hero-king. The Epic of Gilgamesh
This comprises the first five books (Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers and Deuteronomy) of the Hebrew Bible. The Torah
Also called the Tanakh. The Torah
It provides a legal and theological framework for life and an ethical system which consists of the Ten Commandments and other rules, such as 613 mitzvot (or “commandments”). The Torah
Earliest known writings about heroes who exemplified virtues most admired. Are known as what? Hero Stories
Value concepts can be discerned from commercial documents, law codes, wisdom sayings, hero stories and myths. These are from what? Ethics in ancient Mesopotamia
Earliest known writings that defined acceptable and non-acceptable conduct and instructional formulations. Legal codes
Earliest known writings provide the boasts of monarchs who conquered and often devastated neighboring territories. Royal Archives
One of the earliest monarchs was said to be the product of the union of a high priest and the goddess Ninsun. Gigamesh, King of Uruk
One fulfills ones destiny through service and through fidelity to whatsoever becomes ones responsibility. Work ethic
One of several early royal prescriptions recovered by archeologists. Each ruler declared that he was divinely chosen for divine wishes. The law code of Semitic King Lipit Ishtar
Earliest known writings contains a negative confession in which the deceased recited before a panel of 42 divine judges with a list of 42 sins no committed. The Book of the Dead
Who said, "That Many are related by the One (water)." Thales
Who is famous not for his general wisdom or his practical shrewdness but because he opened up a new area of thought for which he has rightly earned the title of the first philosopher of Western civilization? Thales
Who was known as the ‘laughing philosopher’? Democritus
Whose emphasis on the value of "cheerfulness," believed that happiness stemmed from an even temperament and from a life of moderation? Democritus
Who quoted, "Good means not merely not to do wrong, but rather not to desire to do wrong,"? Democritus and Leucippus
Who quoted, "He who chooses the advantages of the soul chooses things more divine, but he who chooses those of the body, chooses things human."? Democritus and Leucippus
Who believed that knowledge and virtue are one? Socrates
Who believed justice cannot mean harming others? Socrates
Who believed striving for good is the condition of all humans and the soul is a person’s conscious personality? Socrates
Who believed morality is the matter of true knowledge? Socrates
Who theorized that no one commits an evil act to do evil? Socrates
Who believed when people do bad things they are inevitably thinking that what they've done will lead to good for them? Socrates
Who believed evil, vice are based on ignorance. Socrates
Who did not, like the Sophists, who believe that "might makes right." Socrates
The father of Philosophy is who? Socrates
Who lived in Athens, Greece from 470-399 BCE? Socrates
Who kept a record of Socrates teachings? Plato
Whose core philosophy is - there is an absolute standard which applied to every man, and by this standard all people would be judged after death in the afterlife? Socrates
Whose belief about justness (morality) was the basics of right and wrong were larger than just one person, they also applied to society? Socrates
Who believed the ability to reason and question our authorities and principles and to rule our desires, distinguished humans from animals? Socrates
What was worthless according to Socartes? an unexamined life
According to who, all sane people had the standard innately built into them. They knew and understood how to be virtuous. The non-virtuous were insane or ignorant. No one knowing chooses to do wrong things. Socrates
Who was arrested for impiety and corrupting the youth? Socrates
Who taught Plato? Socrates
What method of teaching is by question and answer; used to elicit truths from his students. Socratic Method
What is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate rational thinking and to illuminate ideas. Socratic Method
Who was born in Athens, Greece in 427-347 BCE Plato
Who founded the Academy in 380 BC which was the first college in history? Plato
What was taught at the Academy Math, Philosophy, and Science
What is the comparable word for "just" when referring Plato's and Aristotle’s teachings? Moral
People who would swing to follow the Sophist view was whose greatest fears? Plato
What book did Plato write to combat Sophist view points The Republic
Why was the book "The Republic" written? To explain why a person should be just.
There are rewards and punishments in the afterlife resulting from our actions here and for its own sake, are two reason's why to be "just", in what writings? The Republic
Allegory is Plato's description of _______. "ignorance"
The hypothetical rulers of Plato’s ideal city –state are who? Philosopher kings
Ethics, in whose theory, come from outside a person. Plato
The people in the cave live in brutal, cruel circumstances; this is whose belief about a life without knowledge. Plato
What charcteristics did Plato associate with the world of senses? unreal, fleeting, untrustworthy, and evil
What did plato believe was the highest good for man? Reason
The reward of the just man was to be released from their body and from this world into a pure good one where they can study the true meanings and ideas. Whose belief is this when a person died? Plato
What are the two worlds that Plato believed existed? The World of Becoming and the World of Being
The true reality, a place of pure ideas and a world of forms is what? The World of Being
How do you access the World of Being? Through reason and thought
This world, where everything is removed from reality is what? The World of Becoming
The real thing from which we see shadows. The pure idea of something is considered what according to Plato? a form
What is happening when it is no longer reality because it can be seen, touched, tastes, felt, or smelt. It is an example of the form or idea. the form is manifesting
When were forms created? They never were, they existed before man and will continue after.
What are the necessary qualities of forms? eternal, unchanging, unmoving, and invisible
"Man is the measure of all things" is a sentiment held by whom? The Sophists
Who argued for a moral philosophy of relativism one based on self-interest? The Sophists
Who develop a theory of ethics that was based on the tenet that nothing was universal; nothing was truly knowable except for what each of us feels individually. The three main Sophists
What did Socrates believe regarding "right action"? Must be rational & consistent with self interest
What is the different steps required to gaining knowledge called. The cave
Conduct or morals cannot be reduced to concepts or principles; it isn’t possible to know the "true" nature of anything because perceptions differ from person to person. relativism
Who are the three main Sophist? Protagoras, Gorgias, and Thrasymachus
What are the different step required to gain knowledge from the cave? Imaging to beliveing to thinking to intelligence.
What depicts how people move from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge. the cave
Who advocated living by the Golden Mean? Aristotle
What is the desirable middle between two extremes, between excess and inadequacy. Golden Mean
Who considered his list of preferred virtues as a mean (The Virtue) between extremes (The Deficiency and The Excess). Aristotle
Achieving this midpoint—for example, having pride (and self-esteem) without being arrogant—was a way to live well. This was whose philosophy? Aristotle
Deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion is called. Syllogism
Who believed that our minds shared that order with the world. Language/grammar is the order of reality. Aristotle
Who deduced that form and matter cannot exist without each other. Aristotle
In whose ethics, responsibility for moral behavior is internally determined. Aristotle
Who said, we have the potential to be good but we have to activate it with reason. Aristotle
Goodness is not a passive condition; it requires action. Is whose philosophy? Aristotle
Aristotle’s Virtues: (besides Plato’s 4 main ones) courage, justice, temperance, wisdom, generosity, good temper, friendship, self respect, honor, shame, pride, truthfulness.
Whose ethics are influenced by his observations of nature, based in part on Plato's theory, and are a refutation of some of Plato's theory. Aristotle
Highest happiness not in the ethical virtues of active life, but contemplative or philosophic life of speculation, in which the dianoetic virtues of understanding, science and wisdom are exercise. & Happiness not identical to pleasure. Whose 2 elements? Aristotle
Greatest good comes from peace of mind (ataraxia) and pleasure (lack of bodily pain). Comes from what school School of Epicureanism
Moral motivation is advantage or disadvantage to Virtue Ethics. Advantage
Doubts about the "ideal" of impartiality is advantage or disadvantage to Virtue Ethics. Advantage
An adequate theory of ethics must provide an understanding of moral character is advantage or disadvantage to Virtue Ethics. Disadvantage
Incompleteness - emphasizes moral virtues/ neglects ideas of character is advantage or disadvantage to Virtue Ethics. Disadvantage
All actions do not fit neatly into a virtue is advantage or disadvantage to Virtue Ethics. Disadvantage
What is an idea that is for any good reason that may be given in favor of doing an action, there is a corresponding virtue that consist in the disposition to accept and act on that reason. Virtue Ethics
What are the 4 cardinal virtues? prudence (good sense), justice, temperance (self control), and fortitude (courage)
What hinges on which all moral virtues depend? cardinal virtues
What is valued courage and acceptance of one’s role in life? Stoicism
What believed that salvation could be found in a mystical union with God. Neoplatonism
Created by: ldepaepe