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Pharmacy Technician

Central Nervous System Drugs

What is the use of a smoking deterrent? To aid in stopping smoking
What is the mechanism of action of Varenicline (chantix)? Mimics the action of nicotine on the brain and can help in both easong nicotine withdrawal symptoms and blocking the reinforcing effects of nicotine if smoking is resumed.
What is the mechanism of Bupropion (Wellbutrin and Zyban)? Used to help people stop smoking by reducing cravings and other withdrawal effects.
What are the side effects of nicotine alternative smoke deterrents? *Nausea *Vomiting *Headache *Flatulence *Insomnia *Abnormal dreams *Changes in taste perception
What is the mechanism of action of a nicotine replacement smoke deterrent? Releases nicotine into the body to prevent withdrawal.
What are the side effects of nicotine replacement smoke deterrents? *Dizziness *Drowsiness *Irritability *Headache *Sleep distrubances *Vivid dreams *Mild hallucinations *Depression
What are nicotine patches (Nicoderm CQ) and Nicotine Gum (Nicorette Gum) examples of? Nicotine replacement smoke deterrents.
What are Antiparkinson's Agents used for? To treat the shaking, rigidity, salvation, and slowing of initial movements associated with Parkinson's Disease.
How do AntiParkinson's Agents work? Restoring the balance between the hormones acetylcholine and dopamine (Parkinson's is caused by a decreased dopamine level)
What are side effects of Antiparkinson's Agents? *Dry mouth *Blurred vision *Consitipation *Hallucination *Memory impairment *Dizziness *Insomnia *Nervousness *Irritability *Confusion *Nausea *Vomiting *Arrythmias *Fatigue
What are Levodopa/Carbidopa (Sinemet) used for? Antiparkinson's Agent considered the "gold standard" in treatment.
What are CNS stimulants used for? *Improve mental function *Elevate moods *Overcome fatigue *Produce a general feeling of well being *Narcolepsy *Hyperkinesis (ADHD in children) *Anorexiants (management of obesity)
What is the mechanism of action of amphetamines? Stimulate activity and are mediated by the release of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in the brain
What is the mechanism of action of Pemoline and methylphenidates? No action is known.
What are the side effects of CNS stimulants? *Dependence *Increased blood pressure *Increased Resipiratory Rate *Upset stomach
What are caffeine, methylphenidate (ritalin), dextroamphetamine (dexadrine), and adderall (amphetamine mixture) examples of? CNS stimulants.
What are antianxiety agents (anxiolytics) used for? *Relieve nervousness and tension in normal or neurotic patients. *Have muscle relaxing capabilities. *Some have anticonvulsant activity.
What is the mechanism of action of Benzodiazepines? Bind to and affecting certain neurotransmitters in the brain.
What is the mechanism of action of Buspirone? Has an affect on th seratonin and dopamine receptors.
What are side effects of antianxiety agents? *Drowsiness *Dizziness *Fatigue *Abrupt termination of high doses can cause coma, convulsions, and death.
What are Alprazolam (Xanax), Lorazepam (Ativan), Diazepam (Valium) and Midazolam (Versed) examples of? Benzodiazepines used to treat anxiety.
What are Buspirone (BuSpar) and Doxepine (Sinequan) examples of? Non-benzodiazepine medications used to treat anxiety.
What is the Alzheimer's Disease medications mechanism of action? NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) Receptor Antagonist
What are side effects of Alzheimer's Disease medications? *Dizziness *Confusion *Nausea *Insomnia *Agitation *Coughing *Fatigue *Abnormal thinking
What are Namenda, Cognex, and Aricept examples of ? Alzheimer's Disease medications.
What is the mechanism of action of antidepressants? *Exact mechanism is unknown. *Appear to increase neurotransmitters in the brain (Norepinephrine and Seratonin). *Usually take up to 3-6 weeks to take effect.
What are the side effects of antidepressants? *Sedation *Anticholinergic (blocks neurotransmitters in the CNS) *Arrythmias *Seizures
What are Amitriptyline (Elavil), Desipramine (Norpramin), and Imipramine (Iofranil) examples of? Tricyclic antidepressants
What are Fluoxetine (Prozac), Paroxetine (Paxile), Sertraline (Zoloft), and Escitalopram (Lexapro) examples of? Serotonin and Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (used for depression).
What are Bupropion (Wellbutrin) and Lithium (Lithobid) used for? Depression.
What are antipsychotics used for? *Relieves signs and symptoms of psychosis *Have better effects on positive symptoms of psychosis *Auditory and visual hallucinations, agitation, suspicion, persecuting feelings, ideas of reference, and intrusion of unwanted thoughts.
What is the mechanism of action of antipsychotics? *Originally proposed to block dopamine receptors in the brain. *Chemical effects unkown
What are the common side effects of antipsychotics? *Sedation *Extrapyramidal symptoms (abnormal body movements) *Anticholinergic symptoms *Orthostatic hypotension *Arrythmias
What are Haldol, Thorazine, Compazine, Prolixin, Mallaril, Navane, and Stelazine examples of? Typical antipsychotics
What are Clozaril, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Abilify, and Seroquel examples of? Atypical antipsychotics
What are narcotic analgesics used for? *Relief of moderate to severe pain *Cough suppressant (Antitussives) *Often combined with expectorants to help the patient cough up phlegm *Severe diarrhea
What is the mechanism of action of narcotic analgesics? Bind to specific receptors within the brain and depress certain parts of the CNS to cause pain relief, respiratory depression, decreased GI motility, and suppression of cough.
What are common side effects of narcotic analgesics? *Drowsiness *Consitipation *Nausea/vomiting *Addiction, tolerance and physical and psychological dependence *Overdoses can cause respiratory depression, profound coma, and pinpoint pupils (narcotic antagoniststreat overdoses- Naloxone or Narcan)
What are Codeine, Morphine Sulfate, Oxycodone, Hydromorphone (Dilaudid), Butorphanol (Stadol), Nalbuphine (Numbain), Meperidine (Demeral), Fentanyl (Duragesic) and Pentazocine (Talwin) examples of? Single product narcotic analgesics.
What are Acetaminophen with codeine (tylenol with codeine), Hydrocodone and acetaminophen (Lorcet, Lortab, Vicodin), Oxycodone and Acetaminophen (Percocet, Roxicet) and Oxycodone and aspirin (Percodan) examples of? Combination product narcotic analgesics.
What is Naloxone? Opiod antagonist used to treat addiction such as oxycodone and heroine; Displaces opiod at opioid receptor sites.
What is Buprenophrine? Exerts analgesic effect via high affinity binding to opiate receptors inthe CNS; Displays partial agonist and weak kappa antagonist activity.
What are anticonvulsants used for? *Epilepsy-seizures accompanied by loss or disturbance of consciousness and possibly abnormal body movements (Convulsions). *Needs to be individualized by dose and addiction of other anticonvulsant agents. *Prevent the accurance of Seizures; don't cure
What is the mechanism of action of anticonvulsants? Control the excessive discharge of signals from the brain (seizures)
What are side effects of anticonvulsants? *Drowsiness *Slurred speech *Addiction *Tolerance and depencence *Respiratory and cardia depression (high doses)
What are Phenobarbital, Phenytoin (Dilantin), Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx), Carbamazepine (Tegretal),and Calproic acides and its derivatives (Depakene and depakote) Anticonvulsants
What are skeletal muscle relaxants used for? *Relieve muscle spasms associated with muscle inflammation and injury *Useful in neuromuscular disorders such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy
What is the mechanism of action of skeletal muscle relaxants? Not understood; may block nerve response within the spinal column; this has an effect of reducing muscle tone and relieveing spasms and tensions
What are the common side effects of skeletal muscle relaxants? *Drowsiness *Addiction *Tolerance and dependence *Respiratory and cardiac depression (with high dose)
What are Diazepam (Valium), Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), Methocarbamul (Roboxin), Baclofen (Lioresal), Chlorzoxazon (Parafon forte), Carisoprodol (Soma), Metazolone (Skelaxin), Tizanidine (Zanaflex), and Orphenadrine (Norflex) examples of? Skeletal muscle relaxants
What are Sedative Hypnotics used for? *Short-term for insomnia *Long-term can cause drug-induced abnormalities in sleep cycle *Antidotes for overdoses of stimulants *In combonation with analgesics in painful situations *Preoperative anesthitics
What is the mechanism of action of Sedative hypnotics? Not certian; believed to reduce activity of brain and spinal cord
What are side effects of sedative hypnotics? *Drowsiness *Addiction *Tolerance and dependence *Respiratory and cardiac depression (high doses)
What are Flurazepam (Dalmane), Alprazolam (Xanax), Lorazepam (Ativan), Diazepam (Valium), Oxazepam (Serax), Midazolam (Versed), Temazepam (Restoril), Triazolam (Halicon), Estazolam (ProSam), Clonazepam (Klonopin), and Quazepam (Doral) exapmles of? Benzodiazepine Sedative hypnotics
What are Secobarbital (Seconal), Amobarbital (Anytal), Phenobarbital (Nembutal), and Butabarbital (Butisol) examples of? Sedative Hypnotics
How to tell if some drugs are benzodiazepines? Most end in "-pam" or "-lam"
What are Zolpidem (Ambien), Eszopiclone (Lunesta), Zaleplon (Sonata), and Ramelton (Rozerem) examples of? Nonbenzodiazepines used for insomnia
What are Diphenhydramine (benadryl, compoz, nytol, and sominex) examples of? Antihistamines
Created by: Martinafulgieri



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