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PA Review

TermDefinition
Why do Cells divide? - growth and repair
Why do cells grow in numbers and not size? - cells need to pass large volumes of materials across a membrane. The larger the cells, the less efficient
DNA Overload - when there are too many demands (due to the fact a cell is so large) the DNA cannot process these demands
Binary Fission - simpler type of meiosis for bacterial cells
Sister Chromatids - replicated chromosomes (exactly the same)
Homologous Chromosomes - chromosomes that code for the same traits but aren't genetically identical
Goal of Mitosis - cells to divide for growth and repair
How do daughter cells compare to original parent cell? - identical to one another
Somatic vs. Gametes s=normal g=sex cells
Diploid Cells vs. Haploid Cells d=2n h=n
What are cell cycle checkpoints? - they make sure the cell is prepared to enter the next phase
Internal Regulators of the Cell Cycle - if chromosomes are replicated - if spindle fibers are attached
External Regulators of the Cell Cycle - if the growth factors bind - cell to cell contact
Apoptosis - if a cell doesn't pass a certain checkpoint, it goes through regulated cell death, and pops
Tumors - mass of cells that wont stop dividing
Benign Tumors - abnormal cells remain at the site causing a lump
Malignant Tumors - spreads, displaces tissue, interrupts organ function
Metastasis - spread of cancerous cells via the circulatory system (Very Dangerous)
Oncogenes and Protooncogenes - normal role: Gas - recessive
Tumor Suppressor Genes - normal role: brake - dominant
Radiation - affects the cells that divide that are damaged, but not as much the normal cells
Chemotherapy -attacks the cells that go through mitosis
Independent Assortment - creates random sets of chromosomes in gametes because chromosomes separate independently of one another when reproductive cells develop
Haploid - one set or half the number of chromosomes
Diploid - 2 sets of chromosomes or full amount of chromosomes
Random Fertilization - since fertilization is random, it has many possible gamete possibilities due to independent assortment
Crossing Over - occurs during prophase 1 -homologous chromosomes pair with each other and exchange segments of genetic material - these new chromosomes are called recombinant chromosomes
Tetrad - formed when homologous chromosomes come together during Prophase 1 to perform crossing over
Non-disjunction - failure of chromosomes to separate properly (anaphase 1)
Somatic Mutaions - occurs in non-germline tissue - non inheritable
Germline Mutations - occurs in germline tissue (egg/sperm) - inheritable
Law of Dominance - dominant alleles are expresses over recessive alleles
Law of Independent Assortment - every allele separates into gametes independently of eachothers
Law of Segregation - each gamete contains only one allele
Monohybrids are... - a cross between 1 trait
Dihybrids are... - a cross between 2 traits
Incomplete Dominance - one allele is not completely expressed over the other "blend" - How to write: "dominant" R, "recessive" R'
Co-dominance - when a heterozygous genotype expresses both phenotypes - how to write: H^R H^W
Multiple Alleles - one gene can have many possible alleles ex: Blood
antigen - substance able to stimulate an immune system response located on the outside of a red blood cell
antibody - protein made by the immune system that binds to antigens and renders it harmless
Universal Donor (blood type) O-
Universal Recipient (blood type) AB+
Which blood types can donate and receive? Donate to: Receive from: A A, AB A,O B B,AB B, O AB AB AB, A,B,O O O, A,B,AB O
Apply Multiple Alleles and Co-dominance to blood typing Multiple alleles: there are 4 different blood types, represented by multiple alleles (I^A, I^B, i) Codominance: 2 phenotypes can be shown at once (ex: AB)
Polygenic Traits traits that are controlled by multiple genes ex: skin color, eye color, height
Pleiotropy one gene that codes for multiple traits ex: PKU, Marfan syndrome, hemophilia
Sex Linked Traits traits controlled by genes located on the sex chromosomes (usually X)
X-Linked Traits - significance on males - Y chromosome doesn't have a locus for traits therefore the males phenotype is completely dependent on the mother's genotype
Gene Linkage - tendancy of certain alleles to be inherited together
Difference between gene linkage and crossing over linked together=inherited together - not going to cross over - no independent assortment
Linked Genes vs. Crossing Over -chromosomes can have both types - some will stay linked - some will cross over - genes close together generally stay linked - we see re-combinations from crossing over when genes are far apart
Recessive Epistasis the recessive genotype controls the other genotype Ex: Labs - Color Gene 1: Represented by B B = Black b = Brown Color Expression Gene 2: Represented by E E = Will express color e = Will not express color
2 most important ways genetic variation happens in cells - independent assortment - crossing over - NOT RANDOM FERTILIZATION
Rh Factor - follows traditional mendelian genetics - + is dominant
Created by: alexa3918
 

 



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