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Module 1

Definitions

TermDefinition
drug any chemical that can affect a living process
pharmacology study of drugs and their interactions with the living systems
clinical pharmacology study of drugs in a human
therapeutics also known as pharmacotherapeuctics, the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat diseases and pregnancy
ideal drug effectivness, safety, selectivity
effectiveness effective drug is one that elicit the response for which it is given
safety one that cannot produce harmful effects, even administered in high doses for long periods
selectiveness one that elicits only the response for which it is given
therapeutic objective provide maximum benefits with minimal harm
pharmcokinetics process in which determine how much of an administered dose gets to its site of action
pharmacodynamics impact of drugs on the body
adverse effect undesirable, unexpected and potentially dangerous response to medication. slow or fast acting
adverse interactions drug to food or drug to drug interaction
toxicity quality of being toxic or posonous
absorption movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood
distribution movement of drugs throughout the body
metabolism aka biotransformation, the enzymatic alteration of a drug structure
excretion removal of drugs from the body
enternal involving or passing through intestine either naturally via the mouth and esophagus or through an artificial opening
parenternal administered or occurring elsewhere in the body than the mouth and alimentary canal
protein binding drugs bind with protiein
maximal efficacy maximum effect a drug can produce, regardless of the dose
therapeutic index comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity
effective dose the amount of a drug, or level of radiation exposure, that is sufficient to achieve the desired clinical improvement
agonist a substance that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action
antagonist a substance that acts against and blocks any action
partial agonist drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist
side effects undesirable effect of a drug or medical treatment
allergic reaction the hypersensitive response of the immune system of an allergic individual to a substance
idiosyncratic effect uncommon response to a drug, because of a genetic predisposition
latrogenic disease result of a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure undertaken on a patient
physical dependence state in which the body has adapted to drug experience in a way that if discontinued would cause abstinence syndrome
carcinogenic effect substance or agent that has the ability to produce cancer
terogentic effect drug induced birth defects
hepatoxicity drugs that are metabolized by the liver and are converted to toxic products
pharmacodynamic tolerance the familiar type of tolerance associated with long term administration of drugs such as morphine and heroin
metabolic tolerance tolerance resulting from accelerated drug metabolism
placebo effect as that component of any drug response that is caused by physiologic factors not biochemical
bioavailability amount of active drug that reaches the systemic circulation from its site of administration
half-life time required for the amount of drug in the body to decrease by 50%
onset the amount of time it takes for a drug to take action in the body
peak highest concentration level
duration an amount of time the drug is taken and wears off
PRN as needed
ADPIE assess, diagnose, plan, implement, evaluate
superinfection develop an infection
prophylactic given to prevent infection
Created by: 1488546054489595