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7&8 product&emission

Equipment. Chap 7&8, x-ray Production, and Emission

What generates most of the heat created in the anodes? The constant excitation and return of outer shell e-.
Ejection of an inner shell electron is __________ radiation characteristic
In characteristic radiation, the x-ray has energy equal to the .... difference in the binding energies of the orbital e- involved.
Tungsten K shell # of e- and binding energy? L shell? 2 e-, 69keV. 8 e-, 12 keV
__________ has very specific energies. __________ x-rays produced can have any energy up to 70keV. characteristic, brems
In the dx range, most x-rays are __________. (charact or brems) brems
at 65 kVp, no useful _______ x-rays are produced; therefore, the beam is all _________. characteristic, brems
At 100 kVp, approx 15% of the beam is ___________, the rest is _______. characteristic, brems.
A ______ spectrum contains only specific values. discrete
A _________ spectrum contains all possible values. continuous
The discrete energies of characteristic x-rays are characteristic of the differences between electron binding energies in a particular element
Characteristic x-rays have fixed energies, and form a ____ emission spectrum. discrete
Bremsstrahlung have a range of energies and form a _________ spectrum continuous
Brems emission spectrum extends from 0- max projectile electron energy, with the highest number of x-rays having approx. _______________ 1/3 the max energy
Factor: tube current. Effect: amplitude of spectrum (up and down) ..........current is mA/mAs
Factor: Voltage. Effect: Amplitude and position (up and down, left/right)
Factor: Added Filtration. Effect: (and when) Amplitude (up/down), most effective at low energy
Factor: Target material. Effect: Amplitude (up/down), position (left/right)
Factor: Voltage waveform. Effect: (and when) Amplitude (up/down) most effective at high energy
The farther to the right a spectrum is..... the higher the effective energy or quality of beam.
The larger the area under the curve.... The higher the x-ray intensity or quantity.
A change in mA or mAs results in a proportional change in amplitude at ____________ across the spectrum. all energies
Change in kVp results in an increase in the amplitude at all energies but a greater increase at ______ energies than _____. Therefore, the spectrum shifts to the _____/_____ side. high, low. Right/high energy
The maximum energy of x-ray emission always remains numerically equal to the kVp
A change in kVp has what effect on the position of the discrete spectrum? none
Discrete emission spectrum shifts to the _____ with an increase in the atomic # of target material. What happens with the continuous spectrum? right. Slight increase in amplitude. (more effect on characteristic/discrete)
Increasing target atomic # enhances the efficiency of x-ray production and the energy of what x-rays? characteristic and brems
Difference between three-phase/6-pulse and three-phase/12-pulse power? simply the reduced ripple obtained with 12 pulse generators.
______ generators are based on fundamentally different electrical engineering. High frequency generators
Because of reduced ripple, operation with 3-phase or high frequency is equivalent to an approx ______% increase in kVp, or almost doubling of mAs over single phase power. 12% (..or 16%?)
What is "grays in air" measurement? quantity, exposure, intensity
What does the standard x-ray machine produce? 50 uGy/mAs at 70 kVp measured at 100 cm SID
intensity of the beam is measured in milligray in air (mGya) (formerly milliroentgen (mR)) called x-ray quantity
mGya (mR) is a measure of the # of ____ ____ produced in air by a quantity of x-rays ion pairs
x-ray quantity is proportional to the kVp ^2
inherent filtration for a machine is approx .5 mm Al equivalent (total with added must be 2.5)
Added filtration for a machine is approx.? 2 mm Al equivalent. (total with inherent must be 2.5)
Created by: Zoest35