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PSY 300 Quiz #2

Chapter 2: Areas of the brain, Develoment, Piaget and Vygotsky

TermDefinition
Development Certain changes that occur in human beings between conception and death. Appear orderly and remain for a reasonably long period of time.
Physical Development Changes that occur in the body
Personal Development Changes that occur in an individuals personality
Social Development Changes that occur in the way that individuals relate to others
Cognitive Development Changes that occur in thinking, reasoning, and decision making
Maturation Changes that occur naturally and spontaneously, and are, to a large extent, genetically programmed. Unaffected by the environment
Coaction Joint action of nature and nurture.
Sensitive Periods Times when a person is especially ready for or responsive to certain experiences.
General Principles of Development 1) People develop at different rates 2) Development is relatively orderly 3) Development takes place gradually
Cerebellum Coordinates and orchestrates balances and smooth, skilled movements
Hippucampus Critical in recalling new information and recent experiences
Amygdala Directs emotions
Thalamus Involved in our ability to learn new information, especially when it is verbal
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Shows how blood flows within the brain when people perform a cognate task
Event-related Potention Measurement assess electrical activity of the brain through the skull or scalp as people perform activities
Position Emission Tamography Track brain activity under different conditions
Neurons Transmit information in the brain, also known as "grey matter"
Neurogenesis Production of new neurons, especially near to hippocampus
Axons and Dendrites Fibers than connect neurons
Synapses The spaces between axons and dendrites
Synaptic Placisity The strength of synaptic connection
Experience-expectant When neurons are over supplied to certain parts of the brain during developmental periods
Experience-dependent When neurons are formed based on an individuals experiences
Glial Cells The white matter of the brain that fights infections, controls blood flow and communicate between neurons
Myelination The coating of axon neuron fibers with an insulation fatty glial covering
Lateralization The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain
Left side of the brain Language processing
Right side of the brain Spacial visual information and emotions
Limbic System Deals with emotions
Prefrontal Lobe Deals with judgement and decision making
Piaget Researcher who focused on why students gave incorrect answers
Maturation The unfolding of the biological changes that are genetically programmed
Activity The increased ability to act on the environment and learn from it
Social Transmition Learning from others
Organization The combining, arranging, recombining, and rearranging of behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems
Adaptation Adjusting to the environment
Schemes Basic building blocks of thinking, can be small or large
Assimilation When our we add to our existing schemes to make sense of the events of our world
Accommodation When we must change existing schemes to respond to a new situation
Equilibration The act of searching for balance
Disequalibrium If a scheme does not produce a satisfying result
Infancy Sensory-motor stage
Early Childhood to Early Elementary PreOperational stage
Operations Actions that are carried out and reversed mentally rather than physically
Semiotic Function Works with symbols to represent an object that is not present
Conservation The number of something that you have does not change unless added to or something is taken away
Decentering Considering more than one aspect of a thing at one time
Egocentric Seeing the world and experiences of other from your own point of view
Later Elementary to the Middle School Years Concrete-Operational Stage
Seriation The process of making orderly arrangements from large to small or vice versa
Classification Ability to focus on a single characteristic of an object and group them
High School and College Formal Operations
Formal Operation A mental system for controlling sets of variables and working through a set of possibilities is needed
Hypothetical-deductive Reasoning Considering a hypothetical situation and logically deducting from it
Adolescent Egocentrism Noticing others but being focused on one's own ideas
Executive Functioning Processes we use to organize, coordinate and perform goal-directed, intentional actions and inhibiting impulses
neo-Piagetian Theories Piaget's insight but adds finding about attention, memory and strategies
Vygotsky Developmental theorist who concentrated on a socio-cultural theory
Co-constructed Processes Higher mental processes are first constructed during shared activities and statagies
Collective Monolouge Children speaking without any real interaction or conversation
Zone of Proximal Development Between where a child is and where they could be with adult guidance
Assisted Learning Guided participation in an activity
Steps of learning Imitative learning, Instructed learning, Collaborative learning
Created by: 1470577542982188