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Test 2

Reinforcement Punishment Reinforcement echances desirable behavior Punishment and extinction diminish undesirable behavior
Punishment bestowal of negative consequences OR withholding positive consequences
Intended Result discourages undesirable behavior
Unintended (potential) Results negative psychological, emotional, performance, or behavioral consequences
Bandura’s social Learning Theory Learning occurs when we observe other people and model their behavior
Goal Setting establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior
SMART goals • Singular • Measurable • Attainable • Realistic • Time-bound
Coaching client driven, behavior-based
Mentoring mentor driven, behavior-based and value-laden
Stress Anything that triggers the stress response - unconscious preparation to fight or flee.
Stressor Demand that triggers the stress response
Eustress motivation towards positive behavior key to managing emergencies and achieving peak performance
Distress adverse responses to or consequences of stressors
Strain =distress Long term results in disease
What can stress affect physical or behavioral, emotional and psychological aspects of individuals as well as organizing functioning
4 approaches to stress 1.Homeostatic/medical 2. Cognitive Appraisal 3. P-E Fit 4. Psychoanalytic
Homeostatic/medical emotions upset homeostasis and cause fight or flight response.
Cognitive Appraisal perception - classification of person/event as stressful
P-E Fit conflicting role expectations - strain, depression.
Psychoanalytic ego/ideal discrepant from self-image. The larger the discrepancy, the greater the stress.
Task Demands change, lack of control, concerns: career progress, technology, time
Role demands conflict and ambiguity
interrole oposing expectations from 2 or more roles
intrarole opposing expectations from a single role
person-role ethics violations
interpersonal demands poor leadership, bullying, harassment, workplace incivility emotional dissonance. Negative ability to detach and recharge for the next day trust between superior and subordinate is an antidote
physical demands temperature, ergonomics, strenuous activity, hazardous substances, international travel.
Yerkes-Dodson Law Stress levels lead to performance and improved performance up to an optimal point, after which stress has a detrimental effect on performance
Positive Stress = Eustress - a characteristic of healthy people
Symptoms of psychological distress burnout, depression, psychosomatic disorders
burnout depersonalization, + reduced perceptions of personal accomplishments
depression lack of motivation, energy, interest
rust out lack of challenge, inspiration or opportunity - apathy, resentment and diminished performance.
psychosomatic disorders physical ailments with psychological origins, e.g., heart disease, stroke, back aches, headaches, ulcers (cardiovascular = leading cause of death in US)
type A workaholics competitive, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, hi n(ach) called Coronary Prone behavior (lethal agents)
Personality Hardiness resist strain reactions via commitment (enjoyable), control, + challenge
Self reliance health, secure, interdependent
preventative stress management primary, secondary, tertiary
primary prevention reduce, modify or eliminate stressors and demands
secondary prevention modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressor.
tertiary prevention (not really prevention at all) - heal individual and organizational symptoms of distress and strain
What to do organizationally 1. job redesign 2. goal setting 3. role negotiation 4. social support systems
what to do individually 1. positive thinking 2. time management 3. leisure time activities 4. physical exercise 5. relaxation training 6. diet 7. opening up 8. professional help
one way communication efficent, more complex, less likely to be accurate, most useful shorthand in emergency situations
two-way communication accurate, takes more time, incorporates confirmation, clarification and feedback, most useful for complex decision making
nonverbal communication 60-90% of the message
Proxemics territorial space alerts to relationship intimate, personal, social and public distances
kinesics body language and posture
paralanguage tone, volume, tempo, duration, laughing
first step to active listening Turn off your responses, reactions, questions, comparisons
second step to active listening Make eye contact – not stare or glare, culturally appropriate
third step to active listening Be attentive – affirm contact non-verbally or sounds without words
fourth step to active listening Recognize when silence indicates thinking versus completion – don’t break the working silence
fifth step to active listening Check for content understanding when the sender has finished – paraphrase the expressed
sixth step to active listening Check for meaning behind the message – reflect and check out perception of core feelings
seventh step to active listening DON’T give advice, share your stories, or in any way try to make yourself the focus of the discussion
Expressiveness willing to be put a stake in the ground around content and relationships
Empathetic Listener (not sympathy) approachable and willing to listen
Sensitive look for and recognize behavioral and non-verbal cues indicating mood of person
persuasiveness use influence and power to support the person and high quality work.
informative clarifying what can and cannot be shared and sharing all that can be shared
barriers 1. physical separation 2. status differences 3. gender differences 4. diversity 5. language
Gateways 1a. F2F meetings 1b. videoconferencing 2a. hats off meeting 2b. leader speaks last 3a.reinforce what F said 3b. F be more declarative 4a. active listening 4b. check the knee jerks 5a. eliminate jargon 5b. explain metaphors
Defensive Communication Acting out of low self esteem or low self confidence include aggressive, malevolent messages, as well as passive, withdrawn and passive-aggressive messages
Defense Communication creates problems . . . hurt feelings, communication barriers, poor working relationships, destructive and retaliatory behaviors, loss of work productivity, inability to solve problems
Defensive Tactics Power plays, Labeling, Hoarding information, Disseminating misleading information, Jokes
Non-Defensive Tactics assertive, direct and powerful; controlled, informed, realistic, honest; self-affirming without being self-aggrandizing; builds relationships; restores order, balance and effectiveness in working relationships
Richest forms of communication mediums small group
Etiquette rules when using communication technologies Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, Email, Texting, Instagram
Group 2 or more with common interests and interactions
Work Team group with complementary skills working on a common mission towards performance goals Task oriented contributors to organizational goals
Benefits of Groups and Teams increased productivity, creativity and problem-solving in organizations psychological intimacy and integrated involvement for individuals
Norms of Behavior interaction, morality, competence, and performance
Group Cohesion interpersonal glue that holds teams together – ranges from low to high Higher- managing members, better performance, and more OCBs
Historical Environment for Groups autocratic, dependent, inter-office competition
Developing Environment for Groups empowered, independent and interdependent
Task Behaviors 1. initiating activities 2. seeking information 3. giving information 4. elaborating on concepts 5. coordinating work 6. summarizing ideas 7. testing ideas 8. diagnosing problems 9. evaluating effectiveness
Maintenance Behaviors 1. supporting others 2. following others' leads 3. gatekeeping 4. setting standards 5. expressing feelings 6. testing group decisions 7. consensus testing 8. harmonizing conflict 9. reducing tension
Work Team Structures goals, SOPs, Performance measures, roles goal setting enhances group behavior
Work Team Process cooperative behaviors vs. competitive behaviors
Work Team Diversity some dissimilarity necessary to foster creativity, novelty, and innovation
Role Diversity include contributor, collaborator, communicator, challenger and integrator
Factors that Influence Group Effectiveness Work team structures, work team progress
Tuckman's Stages 1. Forming 2. Storming 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning
Forming Members start interacting and try to work out what is expected of them. Excitement and enthusiasm is mixed with fear and uncertainty.
Storming conflict occurs as personal agendas come to light. Members assert themselves and start questioning decisions and challenging authority.
Norming the group find ways of resolving conflict and begin to emerge as a cohesive unit. Criticisms and feedback are given constructively and members start co-operating with one another.
Performing Confidence grows both individually and with other members of the group as they work towards a common goal.
Adjourning Having completed their task the group dissolves. Members will share either a sense of loss or relief, depending on the outcome of the task.
Empowerment a personal and team characteristic competence required process skills required (decision making, negotiating, cooperating
Self-managed teams =self-directed work teams = autonomous work groups
Benefits of Mature Teams increase in productivity, decrease in time, machinery down time, + costs
Upper Echelons theory background of top managers can predict organizational characteristics and standards for values, competence, ethics,…throughout the organization
Top Team Diversity characteristics: homogeneous, token, bicultural, and multicultural
Created by: matthewparish
Popular Management sets




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