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Imaging Procedures

Anatomy, positioning, and pathology

QuestionAnswer
Hypersthenic (5%) Body large and heavy Bony framework thick, short, and wide. lungs and heart hight pg.78
Asthenic (10%) Body slender and light Bony framework delicate Thorax long and narrow pg.78
Sthenic (50%) Build average and athletic Similar to hypersthenic, but modified by elongation of abdomen and thorax pg.78
Hyposthenic (35%) Somewhat slighter, less robust Similar to asthenic, but stomach, intestines, and gallbladder situated higher in abdomen. pg.78
C1 Mastoid process pg.84
C5 Thyoid cartilage pg.84
C7 Vertebra prominens pg.84
T2-3 Jugular notch pg.84
T9 Xiphoid tip pg.84
T11-L3 Kidneys pg.84
L3-4 Umbilicus pg.84
L4 Iliac crest pg.84
Functions of Skeletal system Support Reservoir for minerals muscle attachment/ movement protection Hematopoiesis pg.94
Gliding (plane) joint simplest motion, least movement, smooth/sliding motion Intercarpal and inter tarsal joints, acromioclavicular and costovertebral joints pg.95
Pivot (trochoid) Permits rotation around a single axis Proximal radioulnar joint and atlantoacial joint pg.95
Hinge (ginglymus) Permits flexion and extension Elbow, interphalangeal joints and ankle pg.95
Ball and Socket (spheroid) Permits flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, and circumduction with more motion distally and less proximally Shoulder and hip pg.95
Condyloid (ellipsoid) Permits flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction Radiocarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5 pg.95
Saddle (sellar) Permits flexion, extension, adduction, adduction and circumduction (no rotation) First carpometacarpal joint (thumb) pg.95
Bicondylar (biaxial) Principal motion in one direction, limited rotation motion TMJ, knee pg.95
Synarthrotic Fibrous immovable pg.96
Amphiarthrotic Cartilaginous Partially moveable
Diarthrotic Synovial Freely moveable pg.96
PA Hand Hand pronated elbow bent 90* Fingers extended slightly apart CR perp to MCP pg.106
Oblique Hand Elbow flexed at 90* Hand and forearm 45* oblique CR perp to 3rd MCP pg.106
AP Thumb Dorsal surface adjacent and parallel to IR CR perp to MCP pg.107
PA Thumb Dorsal surface adjacent and || to IR pg.107
PA fingers Hand pronated giners extended elbow flexed 90* CR perp to PIP pg.107
PA Wrist Hand pronated with MCPs slightly flexed Elbow flexed 90* CR perp mid carpal pg.108
Lateral Wrist Elbow flexed 90*, ulnar surface down Radius and ulna superimposed CR perp mid carpal region pg.108
AP Forearm forearm supinated and extended interepicondylar line || IR Shoulder and elbow on the same plane CR perp mid forearm pg.109
Lateral Forearm Elbow flexed 90* Epicondyles superimposed and interepicondylar line perp IR Hand lat, shoulder and elbow on the same plane CR perp mid forearm pg.109
AP Elbow Forearm supinated and extended interepicondylar line || IR CR perp elbow joint m/w b/w epicondyles pg.110
Lateral Elbow Elbow flexed 90* Interepicondylar line perp IR forearm and wrist lateral CR perp elbow joint at the epicondyles pg.110
AP Humerus Arm extended and supinated interepicondylar line || IR CR perp mid humerus pg.111
Lateral Humerus Elbow flexed 90* interepicondylar line perp IR CR perp mid humerus pg.111
Shoulder posterior oblique Grashey Method RPO or LPO (erect or recumbent) MSP 35-45* to the affect side Scapula || IR Suspend respiration CR perp 2" medial and 2" inferior to superior and lat shoulder pg.111
PA oblique scapular Y Affected shoulder centered to IR MCP 60* to IR CR perp shoulder joint pg.111
AP Scapula AP upright or recumbent scapula centered with arm abducted, elbow flexed CR perp mid scapula, about 2" inferior of coracoid process pg.113
Tarsal bones Calcaneus Talus Navicular Cuboid Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform pg.114
Male Pelvis Norrower, more vertical Deeper from anterior to posteriorPubic angle less than 90* Inlet narrower and heart shaped/round pg.123
Female Pelvis Wider, more angled toward horizontal Shallower from anterior to posterior Pubic angle greater than 90* Inlet larger and rounder pg.123
AP foot Knee flexed about 45* Planter surface on IR CR 10* or perp to base of 3rd metatarsal pg.124
Medial Oblique foot Start as dorsoplantar, rotate 30* Plantar surface and IR are 30* CR perp base of 3rd metatarsal pg.124
Lateral foot Recumbant lateral Patella perp tabletop foot slightly dorsiflexed Plantar surface || IR CR perp metatarsal bases pg.124
AP lower leg (Tibia/Fibula) Leg extended AP no pelvic relation foot dorsiflexed CR perp mid shaft tibia pg.128
Later lower leg Recumbent on the affected side Patella perp table top Ankle and foot lat CR perp mid shaft pg.128
AP Knee Leg extended AP no pelvic rotation leg may be rotated 3-5* internally CR to 1/2" below patellar apex Direction of CR depends on distance b/w ASIS and tabletop 19-24cm 0* >24cm 3-5* cephalad pg.129
Lateral Knee Recumbent on affected side patella perp tabletop knee flexed 20-30* 5* cephalad to knee jt pg.129
AP weight bearing (bilateral) AP erect against upright bucky weight evenly shared on legs CR perp midway b/w knees at the level of patellar apices pg.129
AP Femur Supine, affected femur centered to grid leg internally rotated 15* CR perp mid femoral shaft (to include hip and possibly knee jt) pg.130
Lateral Femur (mediolateral) recumbent lateral with the affected leg centered to grid patella perp tabletop CR perp mid shaft pg.130
AP Hip Supine, sagittal plane 2" medial to ASIS centered to grid No pelvic rotation leg rotated 15* internally CR sagittal plane 2" medial to ASIS at level of greater trochanter pg.131
AP Oblique (unilateral frog leg) Supine, ASIS of affected side centered to grid knee and hip acutely flexed Thigh abducted 40* CR perp the affected hip at a level 1" above the pubic symphysis pg.131
AP Pelvis Supine, MSP perp table top no pelvic rotation legs rotated internally 15* CR perp midline at a level 2" above great trochanter; top of IR 1-2" above iliac crest. pg.132
AP Axial Sacroiliac Joint Supine MSP centered to fid CR 30-35* cephalic, to the midline approximately 2" below level of ASIS pg.133
AP Cervical Spine Supine or erect MSP perp grid Adjust flexion so mastoid tip and occlusal plane are aligned 15-20* cephalad to thyroid cartledge pg.142
Lateral Cervical Erect w/ L side adjacent to IR Chin slightly elevated shoulders depressed MSP || IR Centered at level of C4 Perp C4 pg.142
AP Thoracic Spine Supine, MSP perp tabletop/ grid top of IR 1" above shoulders CR perp T7 pg.144
AP Lumbar Spine Supine, MSP perp tabletop/ grid knees flexed, feet flat on table CR perp to L3 pg. 146
Lateral Thoracic Spine L lat recumbent Midaxillary line centered to table arms per long axis of body top of IR 1" above shoulders CR 5-15* cephalad (perp to long axis of spine) pg.144
Lateral Lumbar Spine L lat recumbent Midaxillary line centered to grid CR 5-8* caudal of L3 pg.146
PA Cranium Prone, MSP perp mid table OML perp IR CR perp nasion pg.161
PA axial (Caldwell) PA, MSP centered to grid OML perp grid IR centered to nasion 15* caudad to nasion pg.161
Lateral Skull Skull MSP || grid Interpupillary line vertical IOML || transverse axis of IR CR perp a point 2" superior to EAM pg.161
AP Axial (Towne) Supine, MSP perp mid table OML vertical top of IR 1.5" below vertex CR 30* caudad to a point about 1.5" above labella (or 37* to IOML) pg.161
AP TRAUMA Skull Supine, MSP perp mid table OML perp IR CR perp nasion pg.161
Created by: criley2