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Exam 5 Terms


Acute glomerulonephritis A sudden onset of an inflammatory process in the renal parenchyma caused by streptococcal infection
Adenocarcinoma Carcinoma derived from glandular tissue
Bladder carcinoma Neoplastic disease of the urinary bladder
Bladder diverticula A pouch in the wall of the urinary bladder
Bladder trabeculae Roughening of the normally smooth bladder wall
Bright’s disease An antigen-antibody reaction in the glomeruli causes an inflammatory reaction of the renal parenchyma
Crossed ectopy A condition in which one kidney lies across the body midline and is fused to the other kidney
Cystitis Inflammation of the bladder as a result of its infection
Ectopic kidney A kidney that is out of its normal position, usually found lower than normal
Foley catheter A catheter that is placed through the urethra and retained in the urinary bladder by a balloon that is inflated with air or fluid
Horseshoe kidney A condition where the lower poles of the kidney are joined across midline by a band of soft tissues, resulting in a rotation anomaly on one or both sides
Hydronephrosis An obstructive disease of the urinary system that causes a dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces with urine
Hyperplasia Overdevelopment
Hypoplasia Underdevelopment
Malrotation A condition of incomplete or excessive rotation of the kidneys as they ascend from the pelvis in utero
Medullary sponge kidney A congenital anomaly of the urinary system in which the only visible abnormality is the dilatation of the medullary and papillary portions of the collecting ducts, usually bilaterally
Nephroblastoma (Wilms’ tumor) A rapidly developing malignancy of the kidneys, usually affecting children before age 5
Nephroptosis Prolapse of a kidney
Nephrosclerosis Intimal thickening of predominantly the small vessels of the kidney as a result of reduced blood flow through arteriosclerotic renal vasculature
Nephrostomy tube A tube inserted through the abdominal wall into the renal pelvis to drain urine
Neurogenic bladder A bladder dysfunction caused by interference with the nerve impulses concerned with urination
Polycystic kidney disease A familial kidney disorder in which innumerable tiny cysts that are present congenitally gradually enlarge during aging to compress and eventually destroy normal tissues.
Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis and nephron
Pyuria The presence of pus in the urine created by its drainage from renal abscesses into the kidney’s collecting tubules
Renal agenesis The absence of the kidney on one side, with an unusually large kidney on the other side
Renal calculi Stone in the kidney or urinary system
Renal colic Severe, agonizing pain that refers along the course of a ureter toward the genital and loin regions in response to the movement of a renal calculus
Renal cyst An acquired adult condition of a cyst located in the kidney, generally benign
Renal failure The end result of a chronic process that gradually results in lost kidney function
Staghorn calculus Large renal calculus that assumes the shape of the pelvicalyceal junction, resembling the horn of a stag
Supernumerary kidney A relatively rare anomaly consisting of the presence of a third, small rudimentary kidney
Suprapubic catheter Type of catheter placed in the bladder and generally used in quadriplegic patients
Uremia The retention of urea in the blood, as characteristic of renal failure
Ureteral diverticula An out-pouching in the ureteral wall
Ureteral stent A tube used to maintain patency of the ureter with the proximal end placed in the renal pelvis and the distal end placed in the urinary bladder
Ureterocele Cystlike dilatation of the terminal portion of the ureter as a result of stenosis of the ureteral meatus
Urethral valve Congenital presence of mucosal folds that protrude into the posterior urethra, which may cause significant obstruction to urine flow
Urinary meatus The opening from the urethra to the external
Urinary tract infection The most common of all bacterial infections, a UTI is an infection in the urinary tract usually caused by a gram-negative bacillus that invades by an ascending route through the urethra to the bladder to the kidney
Vesicoureteral reflux The backward flow of urine out of the bladder and into the ureters
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate Carcinoma derived from glandular tissue and located in the prostate gland
Bicornuate uterus A uterus with paired uterine horns extending to the uterine tubes
Breast carcinoma Cancer of the breast and the second leading cause for female cancer deaths in the United States
Cervical carcinoma A common malignancy of the female genital system caused by an abnormal growth pattern of epithelial cells around the neck of the uterus
Cervical dysplasia A common malignancy of the female genital system caused by an abnormal growth pattern of epithelial cells around the neck of the uterus
Corpus luteum ovarian cyst A cyst that develops in the yellow endocrine body formed in the ovary in the site of a ruptured ovarian follicle
Cryptorchidism Condition when the testes do not descend through the inguinal canal
Cystadenocarcinoma Malignant neoplasm of the ovary; generally occurs in women over the age of 40 years
Cystic teratoma/Dermoid cysts Cystic masses arising from unfertilized ova, containing hair, fat, or bone, and located in an ovary
Ectopic pregnancy A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum is implanted outside of the uterus
Endometrial carcinoma Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium that is the most common malignancy of the uterus
Endometriosis A condition in which endometrial tissue implants in aberrant pelvic locations
Epididymo-orchitis A testicular condition that may result in benign masses of the testes
Fibroadenoma Adenoma containing fibrous tissue
Fibrocystic breasts A benign, generally bilateral breast condition characterized by various-sized cysts located throughout the breasts
Follicular ovarian cyst A cyst arising from the ovum
Hydatidiform mole Represents an abnormal conception where there is usually no fetus, and the uterus is filled with cystically dilated chorionic villi that resemble a bunch of grapes
Hydrocele A benign testicular mass consisting of a collection of fluid in the testis or along the spermatic cord
Hysterosalpingogram A radiographic examination for screening of the nongravid woman; injection of contrast into the uterus and the flow into the uterine tubes reveals their patency, which may affect the ability to become pregnant
Leiomyoma A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle
Mastitis Inflammation of the breast, most often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria
Nongravid Nonpregnant
Oligohydramnios The presence of too little (less than 300 ml) amniotic fluid at term, generally associated with renal disorders in the fetus
Peau d’orange Appearance of multiple small depressions on the skin surface as a result of hair follicles becoming visible from skin edema, as might occur with breast cancer
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) A bacterial infection of the female genital system, most often caused by bacteria
Pessary A device inserted into the vagina to provide proper support to a uterus that lacks proper support
Placental abruption A condition that occurs when the normally implanted placenta may prematurely separate from the uterus
Placental percreta An abnormal adhesion of the placenta to the uterine wall
Placenta previa The condition in which the placenta develops in the lower half of the uterus, encroaching or on, and completely or partially covering, the internal cervical os
Prostatic hyperplasia A common benign enlargement of the prostate gland caused by the development of discrete nodules within the organ
Sonohysterography A sonographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes where normal saline is injected into the uterus
Spermatocele A cystic dilatation of the epididymis
Testicular choriocarcinoma A malignant germ cell tumor of the testicle
Testicular embryonal carcinoma A malignant germ cell tumor of the testicle
Testicular seminoma A malignant germ cell tumor of the testicle
Testicular teratoma A malignant germ cell tumor of the testicle
TURP A procedure known as transurethral resection of the prostate; performed by passing an endoscope through the urethra to core out the gland
Unicornuate uterus A uterus whose uterine cavity is elongated and has a single uterine tube emerging from it
Uterine fibroid Common misnomer for a leiomyoma that has been replaced largely by fibrous scar tissue
Uterus didelphys Complete duplication of the uterus, cervix, and vagina
Atelectasis Loss of air in a lung resulting from a partial or total collapse of a lung
Avulsion fracture A fracture in which a fragmented bone is pulled away from the shaft, usually occurring around a ligament or tendon, and often with muscle-tearing, as is associated with a sprain or dislocation
Basilar fracture A skull fracture that may demonstrate air-fluid levels in the sphenoid sinus or clouding of the mastoid air cells radiographically
Closed fracture A fracture that does not produce an open wound
Closed reduction Manipulation of a fracture that may require anesthetic and then application of a splint or cast
Coma A state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused
Comminuted fracture A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
Compression fracture A fracture produced by compression
Concussion Brief loss of consciousness as a result of a blow to the head
Contrecoup lesion A contusion formed on the opposite side of the skull in reference to a trauma site
Contusion An injury in which the tissue is bruised but not broken
Coup lesion A contusion formed on the side of the head in which trauma occurs
Depressed fracture A fracture of the skull in which a fragment is depressed inward
Dislocation The displacement of any part out of contact with its normal articulation
Fatigue fracture A fracture that occurs at sites of maximal strain on a bone, usually in connection with unaccustomed activity and most frequently found in the metatarsals
Fracture The breaking or rupturing of bone caused by mechanical forces either applied to the bone or transmitted directly along the line of a bone
Greenstick fracture A fracture in which the cortex breaks on one side without separation or breaking of the opposing cortex.
Growth plate fracture A fracture that involves the end of a long bone of a child, and that may be limited to growth-plate cartilage or extend into the metaphysis, epiphysis, or both
Hangman’s fracture A fracture of the arch of the second cervical vertebra, usually accompanied by anterior subluxation of the second cervical vertebra on the third cervical vertebra; also known as atraumatic spondylosis. results from acute hyperextension of the head.
Hematoma A localized collection of blood in an organ, space, or tissue as a result of a break in the wall of a blood vessel
Impacted fracture A fracture that occurs when one of the fractured bone ends is jammed into the cancellous tissue of another fragment
Incomplete fracture A fracture in which only part of the bony structure gives way, with little or no displacement
Jefferson’s fracture A burst fracture of the vertebral arch resulting from a severe axial force that causes compression, such as a diving accident
Level I trauma center Medical center that can provide total care for all injuries and treats 1,200 admissions per year or 240 major trauma patients per year. Technologists must be available on call.
Level II trauma center Medical facility serving as a community trauma center. These institutions can handle the majority of trauma cases and transport patients to level I facilities only when necessary.
Level III trauma center Medical center usually located in remote rural areas and serves communities that do not have a level II center. Radiologic technologists are generally in house for most of the day but may be available on call during late evening and nighttime hours.
Linear fracture A fracture that extends lengthwise through a bone
Noncomminuted fracture A fracture in which the bone separates into two fragments
Occult fracture A fracture that gives clinical signs of its presence without radiologic evidence; follow-up within 10 days reveals bone resorption or displacement at the fracture site
Open fracture A fracture in which the bone has penetrated the skin
Open reduction Manipulation of a fracture requiring orthopedic hardware to maintain fracture reduction or when an open fracture needs irrigation
Pneumoperitoneum The presence of air or gas in the peritoneal cavity
Pneumothorax An accumulation of free air or gas in the pleural space that compresses the lung tissue
Stress fracture A fracture that occurs at a site of maximal strain on a bone, usually connected with some unaccustomed activity (also known as march, stress, or insufficiency fractures)
Subluxation An incomplete or partial dislocation
Torus fracture A fracture in which the cortex folds back upon itself, with little or no displacement of the lower end of the bone
Created by: RT2017