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# Research & Eval

### COMPS SG

Question | Answer |
---|---|

A professional counselor is interested in developing an affirmative policy after investigating the treatment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals in a community program. This study is represented best by which paradigm? | Critical |

The paradigm characterized most by the notion that with enough research we can gain knowledge of a universal truth | Positivism |

The _________ study failed the most to outline participant's voluntariness | Willowbrook |

___________ outlines research participants' rights and researchers' responsibilities in conducting research | 45 CRF 46 |

The type of counseling program a client seeks is an example of | an independent variable |

Detecting a significant relationship when one is present is known as | Power |

Conducting qualitative research followed by quantitative research is known as | Exploratory Design |

Comparing the impact of a bullying incident across grade levels | Is an example of a cross-sectional design |

Evaluating the impact of a smoking cessation program for a sample of 150 clients using repeated measures is an example of | a Time Series Design |

What is the relationship between driving speed and gas prices? is an example of a question between addressed by a __________ design | Correlational design |

True Experimental research designs | require random assignment |

The amount of shared variance among the variables of depression and anxiety (r =.30) is p. 218 | .09 |

Skewness can be identified if the _________ and _________ are known | mean and median |

The median is influenced by | the position of scores |

The mode is influenced by | extreme scores |

Can the mean be influenced by extremely high or low scores? | NO |

If you are trying to determine the typical salary for real estate professionals and your data includes $30,000, $25, 000, $38,000, and $249,000, using a ________ would be the most appropriate measure of central tendency? | Median |

The key difference between a t-test and an ANOVA is | the number of groups for an independent variable |

The key difference between an ANOVA and a MANOVA is | the number of dependent variables |

An independent t-test is to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z procedure a dependent t-test is to p. 226 | a Wilcoxin's signed ranks test |

Consensual Qualitative Research | most assists counselors to attend to participants' lived experiences while developing theory on processes of a phenomenon |

The question, "Why should I believe your qualitative findings?" is best answered by focusing on | Credibility |

Characteristics of qualitative research include | Identifying researcher bias Managing and analyzing data through a qualitative study Collaborating with participants and treating them as experts |

__________ refers to providing feedback to stakeholders | Accountability |

During the needs assessment process, a ____________ is typically given to stakeholders | Executive summary |

Mean | add all the numbers up and divide by the number of scores it's the most useful measure of central tendency, expressed with by an X with a bar over it |

Median | the score in the exact middle of the distribution |

Mode | most frequently occurring score and the least important measurement of central tendency largest or maximum point of concentration (e.g., highest point on the curve) |

Range | a measure of variability; the distance between the largest and smallest scores; the larger the range, the greater the dispersion or spread of scores from the mean Simplest way to measure the spread of a score (highest - lowest score + 1) |

Test of significance | used to compare a control group to an experimental group |

Within subjects design | two or more values/levels of the IV are given to each subject |

Between subjects design | each subject receives only one value of the IV |

Type I Error (ALPHA) | when a researcher rejects the null hypothesis although it is true |

Type II Error (BETA) | when you accept the null hypothesis but it is false |

What happens when you change the significance level from .05 to .001 | Alpha errors decrease and Beta errors increase |

T-test | used to compare to sample groups in order to see whether two sample means are significantly different |

ANOVA | used to test one IV; more than one level of a single IV |

MANOVA | Used when there is more than one DV |

Two-Way ANOVA | used to test two IVs |

Table of F values | used to determine if significance differences exist in an ANOVA |

N = 1 | number of person being studied = 1; this is a case of one approach and is popular with behaviorists |

Factorial Design | several experimental variables are investigated and interactions can be noted. Include two or more IVs, sometimes called levels |

What axis is used to plot the IV scores? | X-axis |

What axis is used to plot the DV scores? | Y-axis; ordinate |

Distribution is bimodal when | research is working with 2 different populations |

The greater the SD the greater the __________ | spread |

The SD is the square root of the ____________ | variance |

Z-scores are the same as | the SD |

T-Score A T-Score of 60 would equal _____, while a T-score of 40 would be _____ | has the mean of 50 with every 10 pts landing at a SD above or below the mean + 1 SD; - 1 SD |

What is the mean average score on the Binet? | 100 |

Nominal Scale | strictly qualitative; simplest type of scale; does not provide measurable information; classifies names, labels, or identifiers; has NO TRUE ZERO POINT |

Ordinal Scale | ranks variables; provides placement |

Interval Scale | numbers scaled at equal distances; NO ABSOLUTE ZERO POINT, (e.g. IQ tests) |

Ratio Scale | HAS A TRUE ZERO POINT; (e.g., time, height, temperature, weight); can be added, multiplied, subtracted, and divided; it is the HIGHEST LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT |

Hawthorne Effect | when subjects know they're being watched behavior changes |

Rosenthal Effect | what the experimenter expects (e.g., teachers and students) |

What do we use to control for sample differences? Helps to remove confounding variables? Statistically eliminates differences in average values influenced by covariates. | Analysis of Covariance |

Statistical Regression | predicts that very high and low scores will move toward the mean if the test is given again |

Developmental studies are | cross-sectional and longitudinal |

Post Hoc Measures | Used to test significant differences between groups when ANOVA yields. significant F value Duncan's multiple range; Tukey's; Scheffe's test |

ERIC | resource bank of literature to help complete literature search |

Stratified sampling | when you need a specific amount of the population (e.g., more women than men) |

Cluster sample | NOT very accurate; used when you can't find a list of an entire population; existing sample |

Inductive reasoning | goes from the specific to generalizations |

Deductive reasoning | reduces the general to the specific |

Standard error of measurement | tells the counselor what would most likely occur if the same individual took the same test again |

Experimental Research | most valued type of research; the process of gathering data to make evaluative comparisons regarding different situations; attempts to eliminate all extraneous variables |

Internal validity | refers to whether the DV's were truly influenced by the experimental IV's or whether other factors had an impact |

External validity | refers to whether the experimental research results can be generalized to larger populations |

Parsimony | interpreting the results in the simplest way |

Variables that the researcher failed to control; they damage internal validity of an experiment | Confounded |

Null hypothesis; Ho | no significant difference; sample observations result purely from chance |

Alternative hypothesis; H1 or Ha | sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause. |