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Research & Eval


A professional counselor is interested in developing an affirmative policy after investigating the treatment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals in a community program. This study is represented best by which paradigm? Critical
The paradigm characterized most by the notion that with enough research we can gain knowledge of a universal truth Positivism
The _________ study failed the most to outline participant's voluntariness Willowbrook
___________ outlines research participants' rights and researchers' responsibilities in conducting research 45 CRF 46
The type of counseling program a client seeks is an example of an independent variable
Detecting a significant relationship when one is present is known as Power
Conducting qualitative research followed by quantitative research is known as Exploratory Design
Comparing the impact of a bullying incident across grade levels Is an example of a cross-sectional design
Evaluating the impact of a smoking cessation program for a sample of 150 clients using repeated measures is an example of a Time Series Design
What is the relationship between driving speed and gas prices? is an example of a question between addressed by a __________ design Correlational design
True Experimental research designs require random assignment
The amount of shared variance among the variables of depression and anxiety (r =.30) is p. 218 .09
Skewness can be identified if the _________ and _________ are known mean and median
The median is influenced by the position of scores
The mode is influenced by extreme scores
Can the mean be influenced by extremely high or low scores? NO
If you are trying to determine the typical salary for real estate professionals and your data includes $30,000, $25, 000, $38,000, and $249,000, using a ________ would be the most appropriate measure of central tendency? Median
The key difference between a t-test and an ANOVA is the number of groups for an independent variable
The key difference between an ANOVA and a MANOVA is the number of dependent variables
An independent t-test is to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z procedure a dependent t-test is to p. 226 a Wilcoxin's signed ranks test
Consensual Qualitative Research most assists counselors to attend to participants' lived experiences while developing theory on processes of a phenomenon
The question, "Why should I believe your qualitative findings?" is best answered by focusing on Credibility
Characteristics of qualitative research include Identifying researcher bias Managing and analyzing data through a qualitative study Collaborating with participants and treating them as experts
__________ refers to providing feedback to stakeholders Accountability
During the needs assessment process, a ____________ is typically given to stakeholders Executive summary
Mean add all the numbers up and divide by the number of scores it's the most useful measure of central tendency, expressed with by an X with a bar over it
Median the score in the exact middle of the distribution
Mode most frequently occurring score and the least important measurement of central tendency largest or maximum point of concentration (e.g., highest point on the curve)
Range a measure of variability; the distance between the largest and smallest scores; the larger the range, the greater the dispersion or spread of scores from the mean Simplest way to measure the spread of a score (highest - lowest score + 1)
Test of significance used to compare a control group to an experimental group
Within subjects design two or more values/levels of the IV are given to each subject
Between subjects design each subject receives only one value of the IV
Type I Error (ALPHA) when a researcher rejects the null hypothesis although it is true
Type II Error (BETA) when you accept the null hypothesis but it is false
What happens when you change the significance level from .05 to .001 Alpha errors decrease and Beta errors increase
T-test used to compare to sample groups in order to see whether two sample means are significantly different
ANOVA used to test one IV; more than one level of a single IV
MANOVA Used when there is more than one DV
Two-Way ANOVA used to test two IVs
Table of F values used to determine if significance differences exist in an ANOVA
N = 1 number of person being studied = 1; this is a case of one approach and is popular with behaviorists
Factorial Design several experimental variables are investigated and interactions can be noted. Include two or more IVs, sometimes called levels
What axis is used to plot the IV scores? X-axis
What axis is used to plot the DV scores? Y-axis; ordinate
Distribution is bimodal when research is working with 2 different populations
The greater the SD the greater the __________ spread
The SD is the square root of the ____________ variance
Z-scores are the same as the SD
T-Score A T-Score of 60 would equal _____, while a T-score of 40 would be _____ has the mean of 50 with every 10 pts landing at a SD above or below the mean + 1 SD; - 1 SD
What is the mean average score on the Binet? 100
Nominal Scale strictly qualitative; simplest type of scale; does not provide measurable information; classifies names, labels, or identifiers; has NO TRUE ZERO POINT
Ordinal Scale ranks variables; provides placement
Interval Scale numbers scaled at equal distances; NO ABSOLUTE ZERO POINT, (e.g. IQ tests)
Ratio Scale HAS A TRUE ZERO POINT; (e.g., time, height, temperature, weight); can be added, multiplied, subtracted, and divided; it is the HIGHEST LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT
Hawthorne Effect when subjects know they're being watched behavior changes
Rosenthal Effect what the experimenter expects (e.g., teachers and students)
What do we use to control for sample differences? Helps to remove confounding variables? Statistically eliminates differences in average values influenced by covariates. Analysis of Covariance
Statistical Regression predicts that very high and low scores will move toward the mean if the test is given again
Developmental studies are cross-sectional and longitudinal
Post Hoc Measures Used to test significant differences between groups when ANOVA yields. significant F value Duncan's multiple range; Tukey's; Scheffe's test
ERIC resource bank of literature to help complete literature search
Stratified sampling when you need a specific amount of the population (e.g., more women than men)
Cluster sample NOT very accurate; used when you can't find a list of an entire population; existing sample
Inductive reasoning goes from the specific to generalizations
Deductive reasoning reduces the general to the specific
Standard error of measurement tells the counselor what would most likely occur if the same individual took the same test again
Experimental Research most valued type of research; the process of gathering data to make evaluative comparisons regarding different situations; attempts to eliminate all extraneous variables
Internal validity refers to whether the DV's were truly influenced by the experimental IV's or whether other factors had an impact
External validity refers to whether the experimental research results can be generalized to larger populations
Parsimony interpreting the results in the simplest way
Variables that the researcher failed to control; they damage internal validity of an experiment Confounded
Null hypothesis; Ho no significant difference; sample observations result purely from chance
Alternative hypothesis; H1 or Ha sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause.
Popular Psychology sets




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