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Freud Id, Ego, SuperEgo (structural) Psychosexual Stages: Oral (attachment), anal, phallic (Oedipus and Electra Complex), latency (least emphasizes sexuality), and genital
Erikson Ego psychologist/ psychoanalyst/structuralist created a developmental theory encompassing the entire life span; 8 stages of psychosocial crisis: Trust vs Mistrust, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Stagnation, Integrity vs Despair
Dualistic Thinking (Perry) this is common in adolescents where things are thought of as either good or bad or right or wrong (e.g., Black and White thinking)
Relativistic Thinking In adulthood. The individual can now see that not everything is right or wrong, good or bad; an answer can exist relative to a specific situation; there is more than one way to look at things. (e.g., opposite of dualistic thinking)
Piaget Said there are 4 Universal Stages of Development: sensorimotor birth to 2 yrs), pre-operations (age 2-7), concrete operational (age 7-11), and formal operations (age 11 and up)
Conservation Refers to the notion that a substance's weight, mass, and volume stay the same even if it changes shape (e.g., water in different cups). _____________ , counting, and concept of reversibility is mastered during the concrete operations stage (age 7-11)
Sensorimotor Stage Stage 1 of Piaget's Universal Stages of Development; birth to age 2; main achievement is object permanence (e.g., knowing that an object still exists), which requires the ability to form a mental representation (e.g., schema) of an object)
Pre-operational Stage Stage 2 of Piaget's Universal Stages of Development; age 2-7; symbolic thinking; children are still egocentric
Concrete Operational Stage Stage 3 of Piaget's Universal Stages of Development; age 7-11; this is a major turning point bc it marks the beginning of logical, operational thought (e.g., they can figure things out in their head); conservation occurs in this stage
Formal Operational Stage Stage 4 of Piaget's Universal Stages of Development; age 11 and up; abstract
Centration occurs in Piaget's Pre-operational Stage and is characterized by focusing on a key feature of a given object while not noticing the rest of it
Equilibriation This is a balance between assimilation (e.g., what one takes in) and accommodation (that which is changed); a concept of Piaget's
Kohlberg The leading theorist in moral development; expanded on Piaget's stages of development; Heinz story (used to assess person's stage of moral development); 6 stages falling into 3 levels of morality (Pre-conventional, Conventional, Post-conventional)
Pre-Conventional Morality age 9 and below; no personal code of morality; moral code is based on consequences of breaking rules set forth by adults; Authority is OUTSIDE the individual and reasoning is based on PHYSICAL consequences
Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment Orientation Stage 2 Individualism and Change Stage __ child is only good to avoid punishment; Stage __ child starts to see there's more than one "right view" that's handed down by authorities; understands that people have different views
Conventional Morality Most adolescents and adults; start to internalize moral standards of valued role models; Authority is INTERNALIZED but NOT questioned and reasoning is based on group norms to which the person belongs
Stage 3 Good Interpersonal Relationships Stage 4 Maintaining Social Order Stage __child wants to be seen as a "good person" by others; answers relate to others' approval; Stage __child becomes aware of societal rules so they uphold the law based on avoidance of GUILT
Post-Conventional Morality Judgement is based on SELF-CHOSEN PRINCIPLES, moral reasoning is based on INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS and JUSTICE; this level is usually the farthest people get. It takes ABSTRACT THINKING in order to get to the stages of of this level
Stage 5 Stage 6 Universal Principles Stage __ rules/laws might exist for the greater good of the greatest number but sometimes they work against certain individuals; the issues are always clear (e.g. Heinz Dilemma); protection of life more important than law; Stage __ justice, equality,
Adler Identity Crisis (developmental psychology)
Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsgy; the difference between a child's performance without a teacher versus that which he or she is capable of with a teacher
Maturationists (included Freud and Erikson) they believe hereditary factors are the only thing that guides behavior, but they said that certain behaviors won't manifest until environmental stimuli are present; neural development must be at a certain level of maturity before the behavior can unfold
Bowlby Bonding and Attachment; if bond is severed at an early age then "object loss" is a breeding ground for abnormal behavior
Harlow Worked with Rhesus monkeys, maternal deprivation and isolation
Maccoby and Jacklin Said males are better than girls at math; major impetus for sex role differences may come from child rearing
Gibson Researched the matter of depth perception in children with the visual cliff
Maslow Hierarch of needs
Empiricists They believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes and grew out of John Locke's philosophy; This was the forerunner of behaviorism; view is behavioristic
Ethology Lorenz (e.g., imprinting); aggression is an inborn tendency; refers to the study of animals in their natural environment
Ritualistic Behaviors common to all members of a species; fixed action patterns elicited by sign stimuli
Fixation occurs when development comes to a halt
Robert Kegan Holding environment; client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction
Freud, Durkheim, and McDougall All were instrumental in the early years of social psychology
Social Learning Theorists These theorists believe that aggression is learned; aka observational learning
Levinson Proposed theory with major life transitions: early adult transition, age 30 transition, midlife transition, later adulthood; midlife crisis for men age 40-45 and women 5 yrs later;
Parsons Father of Guidance; acknowledges significance of culture; WORLDVIEW; 1st pioneer to solely focus on sociocultural issues
Jean Dollard and Neal Miller Frustration-aggression theory, which says frustration occurs when a person is blocked so he/she can't reach an intended goal (or goal is removed)
Bogardus developed social distance scale to evaluate how people feel toward ethnic groups
Freedom Fraser Foot Asking for a small favor to get a yes to a bigger favor
Social Exchange Theory Theory postulates a relationship will endure if rewards are greater than the costs
Balance theory
Brown vs Board of Education, 1954 outlawed public school segregation and was a prime factor for multicultural counseling
Emic a culture specific perspective; an insider's perspective of culture
Etic adheres to the theory that humans are humans, regardless of background and culture, the same theories and techniques can be applied to any client; emphasizes sameness; a universalism perspective that transcends cultural boundaries
Alloplastic Viewpoint changing or altering external factors; attacking the system
Autoplastic viewpoint change comes from within the person
Allport Created concept of social facilitation; said an individual who's given a task of memorizing a list of numbers will perform better if part of a group
McDougal and Ross helped introduce social psychology
Milgram Obedience and Authority; people were more likely to administer the highest shock level when an authority figure was around
Sherif et al. Social psychology experiment in which 2 groups of boys didn't get along so he assigned them a cooperative goal (e.g., Robber's Cave Experiment)
Popular Psychology sets




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