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ARRT Content specs

Image Acqusition and Equipment Operation

Answer
How does mAs affect receptor exposure/density/ quantity? They have a direct relationship. mAs increases, density increases and vice versa.
How does mAs affect contrast/quality? It doesn't.
How does mAs affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? It doesn't (Pg 299).
How does mAs affect distortion? It doesn't.
How does kVp affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Directly. If kVP increases, quantity increase and vice versa (Pg 317).
How does kVp affect contrast/quality? Indirectly. If kVp increases, contrast decreases. High kVp = short scale contrast (Pg315).
How does kVP affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? It doesn't.
How does kVp affect distortion? It doesn't.
How does SID affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Indirectly. As SID increases, quantity decreases. (Less beam reaching image receptor (Pg 318))
How does SID affect contrast/quantity? It doesn't.
How does SID affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? Directly. As SID increases, spatial resolution increases, and vice versa (Pg 301).
How does SID affect distortion? Indirectly. As SID increases, distortion decreases and vice versa (Pg 301).
How does OID affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? it doesn't.
How does OID affect contrast/quality? Directly. Only in Air Gap technique. Higher OID, shorter contrast (Pg 329).
How does OID affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? Indirectly. As OID increases, spatial resolution decreases and vice versa (Pg 301).
How does OID affect distortion? Directly. As OID increases, distortion increases and vice versa (pg 303).
How does Focal Spot Size affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? it doesn't.
How does Focal Spot Size affect contrast/quality? it doesn't
How does Focal Spot Size affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? Indirectly. As Focal Spot Size increases, spatial resolution decreases and vice versa (Pg 305).
How does Focal Spot Size affect distortion? it doesn't.
How does Grid Ratio affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Indirectly. As grid ratio increases, quantity decreases. (Less # of electrons hitting the receptor (Pg323))
How does grid ratio affect contrast/quality? Directly. As grid ratio increases, contrast increases. (Grids reduce scatter, allowing higher energy photons to reach the receptor)( Pg347)
How does grid ratio affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? it doesn't.
How does grid ratio affect distortion? it doesn't
How does collimation/tube restriction affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Directly. As collimation field size increases, quantity increases. (More # of photons reaching the image receptor) (Pg 336)
How does collimation/tube restriction affect contrast/quality? Indirectly. The higher the collimation field size, decrease in contrast. (more grays in image, long scale contrast)
How does collimation/tube restriction affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? It doesn't
How does collimation/tube restriction affect distortion? it doesn't.
How does beam restriction/beam filtration affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Indirectly. As beam filtration increases, quantity decreases. (less photons hitting receptor)(Pg 336)
How does beam restriction/beam filtration affect contrast/density? Indirectly. As beam filtration increases, quality decreases. (higher energy beams hit receptor, resulting in high scale contrast aka less grays (Pg 336).
How does beam restriction/beam filtration affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? it doesn't
How does beam restriction/beam filtration affect distortion? it doesn't
How does motion affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? It doesn't
How does motion affect contrast/quality? it doesn't
How does motion affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? Indirectly. As motion increases, spatial resolution deceases and vice versa (Pg 310).
How does motion affect distortion? it doesn't
How does the Anode Heel Effect affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Indirectly. As the angle of the heel increases, quantity decreases and vice versa. (Lower # of photons reaching image receptor) (Pg 307)
How does the Anode Heel Effect affect contrast/quality? it doesn't (Pg336)
How does the Anode Heel Effect affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? it doesn't
How does the Anode Heel Effect affect distortion? it doesn't
How does the angle of the tube affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? It doesn't
How does the angle of the tube affect contrast/quality? It doesn't.
How does the angle of the tube affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? Indirectly. As the angle increases, spatial resolution decreases and vice versa (Pg 309).
How does the angle of the tube affect distortion? Directly. The higher the angle, the larger the distortion and vice versa (Pg 303).
How does patient conditions affect receptor exposure/density/quantity? Dependent
How does patient conditions affect contrast/quality? dependent. As pathology is additive, more contrast. If pathology is destructive, less contrast (Pg 345)
How does patient conditions affect spatial resolution/recorded detail? Dependent.
How does patient conditions affect distortion? FX is a direct distortion
What are the two types of AECs? Ionization chamber and phototimer (Pg 350)
Why would you use a backup timer? in case the automatic timer fails (pg 350)
What are the two most important factors when using AEC? detector selection & patient positioning (Pg 351)
How much does kVp increase for every 1cm increase in patient part thickness? 2 kVp (Pg 352)
Pixel depth is directly related to what? the number of shades of gray (Pg 355)
The smaller the pixel size, the greater the what? Spatial resolution (Pg 355)
What is pixel pitch? the distance between neighboring pixels. The higher the sampling frequency, the greater the spatial resolution (Pg 365)
What does an x-ray generator do? Change mechanical energy into electrical energy (Pg 437)
What does a motor do? Changes electrical energy into mechanical energy (Pg 437)
What are the three main components of an x-ray tube? Anode (+), Cathode (-), and glass envelope (vacuum) (Pg 444)
What is the electron source in an x-ray tube? The tungsten filament (Pg 445)
What is the target source and what is it made of? The anode, made of molybdenum and tungsten (Pg 445)
What is the induction motor made up of? The rotor (inside glass envelope), and stator (outside glass envelope) (Pg 446)
What is an image intensifiers purpose? Brighten the image 5,000 to 20,000 times (Pg 475)
What does a CCD do? converts light into an electrical charge (Pg 476)
Why are flat panel detectors used in fluoroscopy? Reduction in patient dose due to increased DQE (Pg 478)
What are the basic components of the image intensifier? input screen, photocathode, focusing lenses, output screen (Pg 481)
How does the image intensifier produce an image? from electrical charges to light (Pg 481)
What does automatic brightness control do? Maintains constant brightness and contrast onto the output screen image (Pg 482)
What does DICOM stand for? Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine.
What does PACS stand for? Picture Archiving Communication System
What does RIS stand for? Radiology Information System
What does HIS stand for? Hospital Information System
What does EMR/EHR stand for? Electronic Medical Record/ Electronic Hospital Record
Created by: klallshous