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Car/Pul Unit 4

SPC Cardiopulmonary Physiology Unit 4 Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What is the Normal V/Q ratio and at what region? 4/5 = 0.8 Medial Region of U/R Lung
What is the ABG for Normal V/Q ratio? pH- 7.40 PaCO2- 40mmHg PaO2- 100mmHg
What is the High V/Q ratio and at what region? 4/4 = 1.0 Apical Region of U/R Lung
What is the ABG for Low V/Q ratio? pH- 7.45 PaCO2- 30mmHg PaO2- 110 mmHg
What is the Low V/Q ratio and at what region? 3/5 = 0.6 Basal Region of U/R Lung
What is the ABG for Low V/Q ratio? pH- 7.35 PaCO2- 50mmHg PaO2- 80mmHg
High V/Q is known as what? Deadspace (4/1)
What diseases are associated with Dead Space? Pulmonary Emboli & Circulatory Shock
Low V/Q is known as what? Shunt (2/5)
What diseases are associated with shunt? Atelectasis, Pulmonary Edema, & Pneumonia
In Fick's Law, gas diffusion across a tissue (A/C) Membrane is DIRECTLY Proportional to what? 1. Membrane Surface Area 2. Gas Pressure Gradient ((P1-P2) PA-PC 3. Gas's Diffusion Coefficient (Henry's & Grahams Law)
In Fick's Law, gas diffusion across a tissue (A/C) Membrane is INVERSELY Proportional to what? 1. Membrane Thickness
What 3 factors increase diffusion? 1. Recumbent Body Position- 15-20% 2. Exercise- Increase Ventilation, Cardiac Output, Perfusion 3. Body Size- Height NOT Weight
What 2 factors decrease diffusion? 1. Decrease Surface Area- Most dramatic with Emphysema 2. Increase Membrane Thickness- Most dramatic with Interstital Lung Disease such as IIPF & Pneumoconiosis.
What two ways is O2 transported? 1. Dissolved (PaO2 x .003) 2. Hb Bound (Hb x 1.34 x SaO2)
What 3 factors affect the amount of dissolved O2 in plasma? 1. Henrys Law 2. Partial Pressure (Direct) 3. Temperature (Inverse)
Hemoglobin (A) is protein base composed of what? 1. 2 Alpha Polypeptide Chains 2. 2 Beta Polypeptide Chains
Hemoglobin (A) is globin base composed of what? 4 Heme (Iron) groups- Each heme combines w/ an O2 molecule.
What is P50? The partial pressure required to saturate the Hb to a 50% level.
What is the normal value for P50? 27mmHg
Decrease P50 is what? Left Shift: (Load) 20mmHg
P50 Left shift would mean what? 1. Increase affinity between the O2 & Hb 2. Oxygen loading is easier in the LUNG 3. But unloading is harder to the tissues
What are the 6 factors of P50 Left Shift? 1. Increase pH (Alkalemia) 2. Low CO2 3. Low Temp (Hypothermia) 4. Low 2,3 DPG 5. Promotes Oxygen Loading 6. Polycythemia, Stored Blood
Increase P50 is what? Right Shift: (Release) 35mmHg
P50 Right shift would mean what? 1. Decrease affinity between O2 & Hb 2. Oxygen loading is harder in the LUNG 3. But unloading is easier to the tissues
What are the 6 factors of P50 Right Shift? 1. Decrease pH (Acidemia) 2. Increase CO2 3. Hyperthermia (Fever) 4. Increase 2,3 DPG 5. Promotes Oxygen Unloading 6. Anemia, Hypomemia
What is Methemoglobin? A congenital or chemically induced alteration of the HEME portion of Hb
T/F Methemoglobin will decrease P50 True O2 loads on Hb, but will not unload to tissues
What is Carboxyhemoglobin? Caused by (CO)Carbon Monoxide poisoning or cigarette smoking
T/F Carboxyhemoglobin will decrease P50? True O2 loads on Hb, but will not unload to tissues
What is Fetal Hemoglobin? Seen in the fetus and neonate, converted to HbA by 6 months Altered 2,3 DPG binding noted with HbF
T/F Fetal Hemoglobin will decrease P50? True O2 loads on Hb, but will not unload to tissues
What 4 factors increase O2 consumption? 1. Exercise 2. Seizures 3. Shivering 4. Hyperthermia
What 3 factors decrease O2 consumption? 1. Peripheral Shunting 2. Cyanide Poisoning 3. Hypothermia
What is the normal value for Ca-vO2? 20-15 = 5 volumes %, 5ml O2/dL
What is the increase a-v value? 20-10 = 10 volumes %, 10ml O2/dL
What is the decrease a-v value? 20-17 = 3 volumes %, 3ml O2/dL
T/F With increase O2 consumption comes decreased C.O.? True
T/F With decrease O2 Consumption comes increased C.O.? True
What 3 values share identical factors? a-v & O2ER & O2 Consumption
What value has opposite factors compared to (a-v), (O2ER), & (O2 Consumption)? SvO2
What is a the abbreviation for Shunted Blood & Total Blood Flow? Qs & Qt
What are the values that give clinical significance to a pulmonary shunt? <10% is Normal 10-20% is Mild 20-30% is Moderate >30% Severe
What 3 ways is CO2 transported? 1. Dissolved 10% 2. Carbamino 20% 3. Bicarbonate 70%
What is the factors of chloride shift at tissue level? Chloride In, Bicarbonate Out, CO2 Loaded, O2 Unloaded
What is the factors of chloride shift at lung level? Chloride Out, Bicarbonate In, CO2 Unloaded, O2 Loaded
What is the Haldane Effect at Tissue Level? As SaO2 decreases, CO2 loading on Hb is enhanced.
What is the Haldane Effect at Lung Level? As SaO2 increases, CO2 unloading off Hb is enhanced.
Created by: Langhout1418