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Myer's Psychology for AP Vocab Chapter 7

memory the persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information.
encoding the processing of information into the memory system.
storage the retention of encoded information over time.
retreival the process of getting formation out of memory.
parallel processing the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously.
sensory memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
short-term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing.
long-term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system that includes knowledge, skills, and experience.
working memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-
explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare."
effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
automatic processing unconscious encoding of the incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information.
implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection.
iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second.
echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled for about 3 or 4 seconds.
chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice.
testing effect enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice affect or test-enhanced learning
shallow processing encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.
deep processing encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.
hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
long-term potentiation an increase in a synapses' firing potential after brief, rapids stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
relearning a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when leaning material for a second time.
priming the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception.
mood-congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
anterograde amnesia an inability to form new memories.
retrograde amnesia an inability to retrieve information from one's past.
proactive interference the disruptive effect of old information on new information.
retroactive interference the disruptive effect of new information on old information.
repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
misinformation effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
deja vu the eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
prototype a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories.
creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
convergent thinking narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.
divergent thinking expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions).
algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently.
insight a sudden and novel realization of the solution to a problem.
confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and ignore or distort contrary evidence.
mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
intution an effortless, immediate autonomic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
representative heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
belief perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
phoneme in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word.
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
babbling stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from about, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
two-word stage beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs.
aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Broca's area controls language expression—an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Wernicke's area controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language predetermines the way we think
Created by: Hajra Maqsoos