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Section 8

Notes from CRC Exam Prep Book

Congestive heart failure occurs when_____: when the heart muscle is weakened or damaged over time
What is dyspnea? difficulty breathing
what is an edema? swelling of extremities
What is an arrhythmia? abnormalities of heart rate or rhythm,
What is the single leading cause of death in the US? Coronary heart disease
What is involved in coronary heart disease? Stenosis, Ischemia, and Thrombus
What is a stenosis? hardening and narrowing of blood vessels
What is an ischemia? restriction of blood supply
What is a thrombus? blood clots
What accommodations can be made for those with cardiovascular disease? o Focus on fatigue and weakness o Respiratory difficulties o Stress o Reduce physical exertion, avoid temperature extremes, provide counseling
How do 50% of spinal cord injuries occur? Motor vehicle accidents
How are spinal cord injuries described? incomplete or complete (severation)
What happens when there is damage at or below the thoracic level? Paraplegia
What happens where there is damage at or above c3? require a ventialtor
What happens when there is damage at c4? Needs assistance with all ADLs
What happens when there is damage at t12 or below? crutches, braces, sacral lesions, loss of bladder and bowel functions
Hypertonia spasticity
Decubitus ulcers pressure sores
What happens when there is damage at t6? autonomic hyperflexia (severe hypertension)
What are accommodations for SCIs? o Personal assistant at work to help with grooming, toileting, and eating o Workstation access o Worksite access o Transportation
What type of MS do 85% of people have? relapsing-remitting
What is relapsing-remitting ms? (attacks of worsening neurological function followed by partial or complete recovery periods)
What is secondary progressive MS? disease worsens more steadily
What is primary progressive MS? no remissions
What are the symptoms of MS? o Fatigue, numbness, coordination problems o Bladder dysfunction o Sexual dysfunction o Pain o Cognition dysfunction
What are accommodations for MS? o Modified work schedules o Automatic door openers o Written memos o Use of large print o Temperature controls
What is Type 1 diabetes? diagnosed in children, teenagers, young adults.
What is Type 2 diabetes? adults, most common, begins with insulin resistance
What are common indicators of Diabetes? polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, nocturia
Nocturia nighttime urination
Polyuria frequent urination
Polydipsia frequent drinking
Polyphagia frequent eating
What are accommodations for DM? o Allowing for storage of medications o Modifying job tasks for requiring fine finger dexterity o Providing a rest area o Time off for dialysis
What are symptoms of hepatitis? o Liver inflammation and swelling o Abdominal pain o Jaundice
What is the time frame for chronic pain? Lasts more than 6 months
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/reflex sympathetic dystrophy): neuropathic pain syndrome that develops when nervous system become overreactive.
What are common symptoms involved with chronic pain? allodynia, dysthesia, hyperalgesia, hyperhidrosis
Allodynia pain from stimuli that usually isnt painful
Dyesthesia unpleasant sensations
Hyperalgesia increased sensitivity to pain
Hyperhidrosis Excessive sweating
What are accommodations that can be made for chronic pain? o Use of personal attendant at work o Developing strategies to deal with work problems before they arise o Reducing or eliminating physical exertion/stress o Implement ergonomic workstation
What is the most common pulmonary disorder that can cause disability? COPD
What are accommodations taht can be made for COPD?  Access to supplemental oxygen  Avoid work environments containing pollutants
What are difficulties associated with TBIs? hemiparesis, ataxia, apraxia
Hemiparesis weakness on one side of the body
Ataxia Coordination/gait problems
Apraxia motor planning problems
What are the different types of hearing impairments? conductive, sensorineural, mixed, central
What is conductive hearing loss? damage involving outer or middle ear
What is sensorineural hearing loss? damage involving inner ear and/or auditory nerve
What is mixed hearing loss? both damage involving inner ear and/or auditory nerve and damage involving outer or middle ear
What is central hearing loss? damage along auditory pathway or in brain itself
Prebyscusis hearing loss as result of aging
What type of hearing loss is prebyscusis? sensorineural
What are the different types of intellectual disorders? Mild, moderate, severe, profound
What is mild intellectual disorders? 50-55 to 70
What is moderate intellectual disorders? 34-40 to 50-55
What is severe intellectual disorders? 20-25 to 35-40
What is profound intellectual disorder? below 20-25