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Ch 5 path terms

Radiography

TermDefinition
Achalasia A neuromuscular abnormality of the esophagus that results in failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax
Adenocarcinoma Carcinoma derived from glandular tissue
Appendicitis An inflammation of the appendix
Atresia Congenital absence or abnormal closure of a normal anatomic opening
Carbohydrate intolerance The inability to digest certain carbohydrates including lactose because of an acquired lactase deficiency
Celiac sprue A malabsorption syndrome that occurs as a result of sensitivity to gluten, an agent found in wheat products
Colostomy An artificial opening (stoma) is surgically created to the abdominal wall to allow drainage of bowel contents into a closed pouch hung outside the body
Crohn’s disease A chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology involving any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but commonly involving the terminal ileum; also known as regional enteritis
Diverticulitis Inflammation of a diverticulum
Diverticulum The presence of diverticula in the absence of inflammation
Dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing
Endoscopy The use of lighted instruments with optic connections to visualize disease of the esophagus and stomach, or rectum and distal colon (e.g., sigmoidoscopy)
Esophageal varices Varicose veins of the esophagus that occur in patients with portal hypertension
Gallstone ileus A condition in which gallstones erode from the gallbladder, creating a fistula to the small bowel that may cause a bowel obstruction
Gastroenteritis General grouping of a number of inflammatory disorders of the stomach and intestines
Gastroesophageal reflux disease An incompetent cardiac sphincter allowing the backward flow of gastric acid and contents into the esophagus
Hernia The protrusion of a part of an organ (e.g., bowel loop) through a small opening in the wall of a cavity
Hiatal hernia Protrusion of any structure, especially some portion of the stomach, into the thoracic cavity through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm
Hirschprung’s disease An absence of neurons in the bowel wall, typically in the sigmoid, preventing relaxation of the colon and normal peristalsis; congenital megacolon
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis A congenital anomaly of the stomach in which the pyloric canal is greatly narrowed because of hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter
Ileostomy An artificial opening (stoma) surgically created in the ileum to allow drainage of bowel contents into a closed pouch hung outside the body
Imperforate anus Congenital disorder characterized by lack of an anal opening to the exterior
Intussusception The prolapse of a segment of bowel into a distal segment
Leiomyoma A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle
Malrotation Unnatural position of the intestines caused by failure of normal rotation during embryologic development
Mechanical bowel obstruction Refers to a bowel obstruction that occurs as a result of blockage of the bowel lumen.
Paralytic ileus A failure of bowel peristalsis, often seen following abdominal surgery, which may result in bowel obstruction
Peptic ulcer Ulceration of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
Reflux esophagitis The backward flow of gastric acids into the esophagus
Regional enteritis A chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology involving any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but commonly involving the terminal ileum
Situs inversus Complete reversal of the viscera of the thorax and abdomen
Ulcerative colitis A chronic, recurrent ulceration of the colon mucosa of unknown etiology
Volvulus An intestinal obstruction caused by a twisting of the bowel about its mesenteric base
Created by: RT2017