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Ch 2 path terms

Radiography

TermDefinition
Achondroplasia A hereditary, congenital disturbance that causes inadequate bone formation and results in a peculiar form of dwarfism
Albers-Schönberg disease A form of osteosclerotic osteopetrosis; this is a benign skeletal anomaly that involves increased bone density in conjunction with fairly normal bone contour
Anencephaly Congenital absence of the cranial vault
Aneurysmal bone cyst An idiopathic condition of a cystic growth consisting of numerous blood-filled arteriovenous communications
Ankylosing spondylitis A form of rheumatoid arthritis of unknown etiology that affects the spine in a progressive fashion, eventually fusing the spine into a rigid block of bone
Arthritis Inflammation in which lesions are confined to the joints
Bursitis Inflammation of the bursae of the tendons, with the subdeltoid bursa as the most common site
Cancellous bone Refers to the spongy, latticelike structure of bone filled by bone marrow
Chondrosarcoma A malignant bone tumor composed of atypical cartilage.
Clubfoot Deformity of the foot involving the talus
Compact bone Refers to the dense, outer portion of bone
Craniosynostoses Premature or early closure of the sutures of the skull
Craniotubular dysplasias A group of rare autosomal recessive hereditary diseases mainly resulting in abnormal or defective bone contour of the cranium and long bones
Developmental dysplasia of the hip A malformation of the acetabulum in which the acetabulum does not completely form and the head of the femur is displaced superiorly and posteriorly
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone
Diploë The spongy bone tissue found between the two tables of the cranial bones
E. coli An ameba normally found in the upper intestinal tract
Endochondroma A benign growth of cartilage arising in the metaphysis of a bone
Epiphysis An ossification or growth center in the bones of children
Ewing’s sarcoma A primary malignant bone tumor arising in medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones
Exostosis A benign bone growth projecting outward from the bony cortex
Ganglion Cystic swelling that develops in connection with a tendon sheath, usually on the back of the wrist
Giant cell tumor (GCT) A neoplastic growth of the skeletal system consisting of numerous multinucleated osteoclastic giant cells; also called osteoclastoma
Gouty arthritis An inherited metabolic disorder with excess amounts of uric acid produced and deposited in the joint and adjacent bone, most commonly in the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe
Hyperostosis frontalis interna A term associated with osteoma of the skull
Involucrum A shell or sheath of new supporting bone laid down by periosteum around a sequestrum of necrosed bone
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Known as Still’s disease and is a form of rheumatoid arthritis that affects children under 16 years of age
Medullary canal Inner spongy or cancellous portion of a long bone where bone marrow is produced
Metaphysis The growing portion of bone
Osteoarthritis Noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring mainly in older persons, producing gradual deterioration of the joint cartilage
Osteoblastoma Tumors of the bone arising from osteoblasts
Osteoblasts The bone-forming cells responsible for bone growth, ossification, and regeneration
Osteochondroma A benign tumor of adult bone capped by cartilage
Osteoclastoma A tumor that is usually benign and characterized by osteolytic areas, most commonly found around the knee and wrist of young adults; comprised of numerous, multinucleated osteoclasts; also called giant cell tumor.
Osteoclasts Cells that are associated with absorption and removal of bone
Osteogenesis imperfecta A congenital disease in which the bones are abnormally brittle and subject to fractures
Osteoid osteoma A benign tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone and sometimes other structures
Osteoma A less frequent benign growth most commonly located in the skull
Osteomyelitis Infection of bone, most often caused by staphylococcus, that may localize or spread to the bone to involve the marrow and other bone tissues
Osteopetrosis A hereditary disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, likely as a result of faulty bone resorption.
Osteophytes Osseous outgrowths (spurs).
Osteosarcoma A primary malignancy of bone usually arising in the metaphysis, most commonly around the knee
Polydactyly The presence of more than five digits
Pott’s disease Tuberculosis of the spine
Psoriatic arthritis An inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis of the skin
Pyogenic arthritis Joint inflammation that occurs secondary to other infections
Reiter’s Syndrome A group of symptoms associated with complications of urethritis
Rheumatoid arthritis A chronic, systemic disease primarily of joints, characterized by an overgrowth of synovial tissues and articular structures and progressive destruction of cartilage, bone, and supporting structures
Scoliosis Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Sequestrum A piece of dead, devascularized bone that separates from living bone during the process of necrosis
Simple unicameral bone cyst Wall of fibrous tissue filled with fluid that frequently occurs in the long bones of children, most commonly in the humerus and proximal femur
Spina bifida A developmental anomaly characterized by incomplete closure of the vertebral canal, through which the choriomeninges may or may not protrude
Spondylolisthesis Forward displacement of one vertebra over another (commonly occurring at the L5-S1 junction), usually caused by a developmental defect in the pars interarticularis
Spondylolysis A condition marked by a cleft or breaking down of the body of a vertebra between the superior and inferior articular processes
Staphylococcus aureus Gram-positive micrococcaceae commonly present on the skin and mucous membranes
Syndactyly A webbing or fusion of digits
Tendonitis Inflammation of a tendon.
Tenosynovitis Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
Trabeculae The spongy substance found within a bone; it gives a characteristic appearance to bony detail
Trabecular pattern The intricate, weblike bony structure that is visible on a properly exposed radiograph of the skeletal system
Transitional vertebra A vertebra that assumes the characteristics of the vertebrae on each side of a major spine division
Tuberculosis A chronic inflammatory disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that destroys the spine, causing softening and eventual collapse of the vertebrae, resulting in paravertebral abscess formation and exerting abnormal pressure on the spinal cord
Whiplash Hyperextension-flexion injury of the spine
Created by: RT2017