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Section 3

Notes from CRC Exam Prep Book

What is the Continuous Theory of Development? Suggest that development occurs as a process of smooth, gradual, and incremental change.
What is the discontinuous theory of development? Development occurs as a series of steps with clear-cut, qualitative different changes occurring from one phase to the next.
What is the nativist perspective? Developmental idea that states Hereditary, genetic, or biological factors influence development
What is the nurturist perspective? Developmental idea that states The environment shapes behavior, and can modify genetic inclinations
What is the combined perspective? Developmental idea that states Both nature and nurture have relative influence on human development
Is there a personality type associated with a specific disability? NO
Is there a simple or direct relationship between adjustment and the severity of a disability? NO
How to individuals adjustment to disabilities? Adjustment to disability is an individual reaction and similar people with similar disabilities react differently
What are Criticisms of various stage or phase models for adjustment and acceptance? The proposed reactions to CID are not universally accepted; Final adjustment is not in reality experienced but that in reality the process of adjustment is cyclical; The fact that unavoidable stages may lead to delay inter. while waiting for adjustment
What is the ecological model of adaptation? suggest that adjustment depends between the person’s available personal, social, and environmental resources and demands on resources.
What is the quality of life model? suggest that adaptation can be assessed and understood in terms of the effect of CID on and the attempt to restore QOL.
What are Freud's Psychosexual stages? Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
What is the oral stage? birth to 2 – issues involve the need to rely upon and trust caregivers to provide nurturance and satisfaction
What is the anal stage? 2 to 3 – toilet training, conflicts with parents over power and control.
What is the phallic stage? 4 to 5 – sexuality and relationships with same sex and opposite sex parent (Oedipus & Electra complex)
What is the latency stage? 6 to 12 – development of social skills, communication skills, self-confidence
What is the genital stage? 12 to maturity – sexual energy is increasingly invested in mature sexual relationships, friendships, career
What are Erikson's Psychosocial stages? Trust v mistrust – birth to 1 Autonomy v shame – 2 to 3 Initiative v guilt – 4 to 5 Industry v inferiority – 6 to 11 Identity v role con – adolesc Intimacy v isolation – young adult Generativity v stag. – mid age Integrity v despair – lat. life
What are Piaget's cognitive development stages? Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
What is the sensorimotor stage? birth to 2 – increasing awareness of sensory-motor integration, object permanence
What is the preoperational stage? 2 to 7 – capacity to use symbols to portray external world, egocentrism
What is the concrete operational stage? 7 to 11 – mastery of logical operations, rule-based operation in environment
What is the formal operational stage? 11 and up – capacity for abstract thinking
What is a schema? a cognitive structure, or set of related ideas or concepts, that people use to function in and respond to situations
What is assimilation? refers to the process of taking in new knowledge and information and interpreting it so as to fit in the existing schema or view of the world.
What is disequilibrium? result of awareness that current observations cannot be made to fit within existing schema
What is accommodation? the development or evolving of new schemata to fit existing and new information to develop new understandings of the world.
What is Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Social Development Theory? influence of social interaction and culture in dev; development occurs in and depends upon social interaction; culture is assimilated by interactions with other people; Potential for indiv cognitive dev depends on the zone of proximal development
What is sexuality? a collection of characteristics that identify and communicate the sexual nature of an individual
What is the Social model of disability? disability is the result of a social structure that excludes certain people from accessing employment, social resources, and positive identities.
What are Topics that CRCs should be prepared to discuss include the areas of? o Fertility o Sexual expression o Prevention of unwanted pregnancies o Prevention of sexual abuse o Establishing sexual relationship with a partner o Dating issues o Sexual orientation issues
How do active learners learn? retain and understand information best through activity, such as discussing, or applying, or explaining the information
How do reactive learners learn? prefer to think through the material and tend to prefer working alone
What do sensing learners prefer? learning facts
What do Intuitive learners prefer? discovering possibilities and relationships
What do Visual learners learn? remember best what they see
What do verbal learners learn? remember words best, both written and spoken
What are sequential learners? learners gain understanding in logical linear steps
What are global learners? absorb material in terms of the big picture
What are factors that influence learning styles? o Environmental situation o Personal-emotional characteristics o Sociological preferences for learning o Physiological characteristics o Global aspects