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Chap 18 CT

Modalities. Chap 18 Bontrager CT. Brain

____ are specialized cells that conduct electrical impulses. Nueurons or nerve cells
Each neuron is composed of what 3 things axon, cell body, dendrites.
_______ are processes that conduct impulses toward the neuron cell body. _____ is a process that leads away from the cell body. dendrites, axon.
_____ neuron is one with several dendrites and a single axon. multipolar. (conducts impulses from spinal cord to muscle tissue)
What makes up the gray matter? The white matter? dendrites and cell bodies make up gray, axons make up white.
CNS has two main divisions: Brain, Spinal cord
Spinal cord terminates at what level? This tapered area is called what? lower border of L1, conus medullaris
The subarachnoid space, which contains CSF, surrounds the brain and cord. It ends at what level lower S2
A common lumbar puncture site? L3-L4
Brain and spinal cord are surrounded by 3 protective coverings called _______. Starting externally, what are the layers? meninges. Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater.
____ mater is strong, fibrous, and has an inner and outer layer. dura
The inner layers of dura mater below these sinuses (venous or dura mater sinuses) join to form the falx cerebri.
______ extends down into the longitudinal fissure between the two cerebral hemispheres falx cerebri
What membrane encloses the entire surface of the brain and dips into each of the fissures and sulci? Pia mater
where is the arachnoid mater? between the pia and dura mater
between the dura mater and the inner table of the skull is a potential space called epidural space
Between the dura and arachnoid mater is a narrow space called ______. subdural space
between the arachnoid and the pia mater is a comparatively wide space called _______. Normally filled with CSF. subarachnoid space.
two spaces that are potential sites for hemorrhage after trauma to head? epidural and subdural
3 divisions of the brain forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
The combo of what 3 things makes up the brainstem? midbrain, pons, medulla
What makes up the forebrain? 3 cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus
Short, constricted portion of the upper brainstem connects the forebrain to the hindbrain? midbrain
Hindbrain consists of Pons, medulla, cerebellum
5 lobes of the cerebrum? (each cerebral hemisphere/side has 5 lobes) frontal, parietal, occipital, temperal, and the insula or central lobe. (all lobes are under corresponding cranial bone, insula is more centrally located and cant be seen)
Cerebrum is partially separated by a deep _______ in the MSP, divides it into left and right hemispheres. longitudinal fissure
convulution or raised areas on the brain are termed gyrus
what is a sulcus? what is the importance of the central sulcus of the cerebrum? shallow groove, central divides the frontal and parietal lobes and is a landmark used to ID specific sensory areas of the cortex.
Two gyri that can be ID'd in the cerebrum are anterior central and a posterior central gyrus
Difference between a sulcus and a fissure? a fissure is a deeper groove, sulcus is shallow.
What is the corpus callosum and where is it located? its an arched mass of fibers (white matter) that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. It is deep within the longitudinal fissure
The ventricular system of the brain is connected to the ____ space. There are _____ cavities. subarachnoid. 4. (each cavity is filled with CSF.. subarachnoid has CSF..)
The right and left ventricles are located in the right and left cerebral hemispheres
the third ventricle is a single ventricle that is located ____ and ____ to the lateral ventricles centrally and inferior
CSF is formed in the ___________ in specialized capillary beds called _____. lateral ventricles, choroid plexus. (which filter the blood to form CSF)
Specialized capillary beds called choroid plexus do what filter the blood to form CSF
how many mL of CSF is formed daily? How much is present within and around the entire CNS? 500mL daily, 140 mL present
Which ventricle has 4 parts? what are those parts? lateral ventricles. Each has a body, & 3 projections: anterior/frontal horn, posterior/occipital horn, temporal horn.
Each lateral ventricle connects to the third ventricle through an interventricular foramen
The pineal gland is attached to the roof of the posterior part of the ___ ventricle, directly above the cerebral aqueduct. third. (cerebral aqueduct connects 3rd to 4th)
The cavity of the 3rd ventricle connects with 4th through a passage called cerebral aqueduct
The diamond shaped 4th ventricle connects with a wide portion of the subarachnoid space called the cisterna cerebellomedullaris
on each side of the 4th ventricle is a lateral extension termed _________, which also connects with the _______ space. lateral recess, subarachnoid
Hydrocephalus is an excessive accumulation of CSF within the ventricles. Could be caused by a blockage
Various larger areas within the subarachnoid space are called ______. The largest being cisterns. Cistern cerebellomedularis
Secondary puncture site? What is the primary puncture site? Cistern cerebellomedularis is the 2nd site, L3-L4 is the first
What consists of two oval masses that form part of the walls of the third ventricle and is just superior to the midbrain? Thalamus
_____ serves as an interpretation center for certain sensory impulses such as pain, temp, touch, and emotions and memory. Thalamus
The thalamus and hypothalamus together make up the _____ portion of the forebrain. diencephalon
_______ forms the floor and lower walls of the third ventricle. hypothalamus
3 significant structures associated with the hypothalamus? infundibulum, posterior pituitary gland, optic chiasma
____ is a conical process that projects downward and ends in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland infundibulum
the infundibulum plus the posterior pituitary gland are known as the neurohypophysis
What controls homeostasis? hypothalamus
The hindbrain consists of what 3 things cerebellum, pons, medulla
What is the largest portion of the hindbrain? & is also 2nd largest portion of the entire brain. cerebellum
_____ gland is an endocrine gland, it secretes hormones that aid in regulation of certain secretory activities pineal
Which gland secretes hormones, and controls a wide range of functions including growth and reproductive functions pituitary
Which gland is located in and protected by the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and is attached to the hypothalamus of the brain by the infundibulum? pituitary
The right and left hemisphere of the cerebellum is united by a narrow median strip called the vermis
Toward the superior end of the anterior surface is the wide, shallow anterior cerebellar notch. What ventricle is located here, separating the pons and medulla from the cerebellum? 4th ventricle
Inferiorly, along the posterior surface, the cerebellar hemispheres are separated by the _________ posterior cerebellar notch.
An extension of the dura mater, termed the ________, is located within the posterior cerebellar notch falx cerebelli
The cerebellum coordinates/controls what? motor functions of the body, such as posture and balance and coordination
Gray matter forms the outer cerebral cortex, whereas the brain tissue under the cortex is white matter. What is this white matter termed? Centrum semiovale
Deep within the cerebrum, inferior to the centrum semiovale (white matter under outer cerebral cortex), is more gray matter termed the _______ or ______ cerebral nuclei or basal ganglia
On a CT scan, areas of white matter include the _______ and _________. Gray matter areas include the ____, ______, & _________. corpus callosum, centrum semiovale. Cerebral nuclei, thalamus, and cerebral cortex
_________ or ______ are paired collections of gray matter deep within each cerebral hemisphere. cerebral nuclei, or basal ganglia
There are 4 specific areas or groupings of these cerebral nuclei. What are they? caudate nucleus, lentiform, claustrum, amygdaloid
Their are ___ pairs of cranial nerves 12
Axons leaving each eyeball travel via the optic nerves to the optic ______. After passing through that, the fibers form an optic ______, Each optic _____ enters the brain and terminates in the _________. chiasma. Tract, Tract, thalamus
Created by: Zoest35