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Chapter 3(Nutrition)

What keeps your food from going down your trachea? Epiglottis
What keeps your food from going back up from your stomach Lower Esophageal Sphincter
How much food enters the small intestines from the stomach at one time A teaspoon
How long is your small intestines 10/11 feet long
What are the three parts of your small intestines Illeum Jejunum Duodenum
Since the small intestines don't secrete mucus like the stomach, what is needed to protect it from acid Mucus
What helps trap food on the inside of the small intestines Villa
Can cell parts be re-used after they are broken down Yes, constantly recycled
Approximately how much nutrients are left once food gets to the large intestines 5%
What 2 bacterial strains are linked to health Bifidobacteria & lactobacilli
What is a probiotic Food containing bacteria that provides health benefits
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi complex
Cells Individual cells joined together for tissues or organs
Membranes The cell wall which holds cellular contents together and regulates substances inside and outside the cell
Organelles Compartments, particles, or filaments that perform specialized functions within a cell
Phospholipids Any of a class of fat related substances that contain phosphorus, fatty acids, and a nitrogen-containing component. (Essential part of a cell)
Cholesterol Fat soluble part of the cell membrane that provides stability/rigidity to the membrane
Protein Structural support, transporters and functions as enzymes (impacting chemical processes) acts as a gate/receptor controlling what goes in and out(allows nutrients and water soluble substances)
Enzymes Compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process but isn't altered by the process.(proteins)
Cytoplasm Fluid and organelles (except nucleus) within the cell
Mitochondria Organelles that are the main sites of energy production. Pathway for oxidizing fat for fuel.
Nucleus Organelles bound by its own double membrane and containing chromosomes, genetic info. for cell protein synthesis and cell replication
Chromosomes Single, large DNA molecule and its associated proteins(genes stored that contains genetic info)
DNA deoxyribosenucleic acid Site of hereditary info (directs synthesis of cell proteins)
RNA Ribonucleic acid Single stranded nucleic acid involved in the transcription of genetic info and translation of that info into protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum Organelles composed of a network of canals running through the cytoplasm. (Contains ribosomes)
Golgi complex Cell organelle near the nucleus that processes newly synthesized protein for secretion or distribution to other organelles.
Lysosomes Cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes for use inside the cell turnover of cell parts
Peroxisomes Cell organelle that destroys toxic products within the cell
Carbohydrates Combine with protein or fat and send messages to cell organelles. Provide defense
Cellular metabolism Chemical process Two types Begins in the cytoplasm (glucose is broken down- anaerobic, in mitochondria) Convert energy into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
What are the two types of cellular metabolism Anabolic: puts molecules together and needs energy Catabolic: takes molecules apart and releases energy
Digestive system major organs that provides usable nutrients Stomach Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Small intestines Large intestines
How long does food typically stay in the stomach 2-3 hrs
How long does it take food to get through the small intestines 3-10 hrs
How long does it take food to get through your large intestines 72 hrs
Average meal absorption 2days!
The process to digestive food is faster in women than men? True/False False Faster in men than in women
How long does it typically take to process food for and adult, female or male, and children? Adult 53 hrs Woman 47 hrs Man 33 hrs Child 33 hrs
Why is smell so important in digestion Smell stimulates GI tract to prep for food (gastric secretion)
Digestive secretions (7) Saliva, mucus, enzymes, acid, bile, bicarbonate, horomones
Saliva Acts as solvent (breaks down food for easier swallowing)
Mucus Component of saliva protects GI tract cells
Enzyme Breaks down food into usable form
Acid Found in the stomach, destroys pathogens
Bile Aids in fat digestion
Bicarbonate Neutralizes stomach acids
Horomones Help release and or produce acid, enzymes, bile, etc.
What keeps you from choking Epiglottis. Closes over larynx so food goes down the esophagus
Chime Watery food mixture in your stomach
Peristalsis Muscular contraction used to propel food through digestive system.
Why is your small intestines called the small intestines? Narrow/thin (1inch in diameter)
Rapid cell turnover The replacement of old cells with newly generated ones. Cells don't last long in the stomach bc the acid
Villa Fingerlike projections that continually move and trap food
What are the three parts of the small intestines Duodenum (10inch) Jejunum (4ft) Ileum (last 5ft)
How many types of bacteria is known to be in your large intestines 500 different species
Bad bacteria Clostridia
Liver Produce bile
Gallbladder Stores the bile and eventually secretes it
Pancreas Manufactures insulin and glucagon (regulates blood and glucose levels) produces pancreatic juices (counters stomach acid)
Organs that help aid in digestion (3) Liver Gallbladder Pancreas
Nutrients storage for fat Adipose tisse
Nutrients storage for carbohydrates Short term- muscles and liver as glycogen Small amount in blood
Nutrient storage for amino acids Small amount in blood
Nutrients storage for vitamins and minerals Liver
Not enough vitamin A (Yang case study) Increase for respiratory infection
Not enough vitamin D (Sadeghian case study) Increased Crohn's disease
Too much calcium (Body and Moodambail case study) Serve hypercalcemia Acute vomiting Weight loss Loss of appetite
How can vegetarians get their Omega 3 Flax seed
How can you get your Omega 3 for a person with a regular diet Seafood Flax seed/milk
True/False coffee is associated with long term health risks False. <400mg caffeine (3 sm. Cups of coffee)
True/False. It is better to eat your protein throughout the day? True. Easier to digest
What has more calories fast-food or sit down restaurants? Sit down restaurants, may have lower quality food. More butters and sat. Fats to taste good. More food buffet getting what you paid for.
Caffeine consumption and telomere levels (Tucker case study) resulted in? Caffeine intake increased, telomere length decreased Coffee (caf/decaf) increased, telomere length increased Benefits in coffee not caffeine
What is telomere Nucleoprotein structures on the end of chromosomes presumed to be connected with deterioration in old age. Longer telomere longer life!
Regulates & carries blood throughout body. Regulate bloods pressure. (System?) Cardiovascular system
Transports nutrients waste hormones oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. (System?) Cardiovascular system
Hepatic portal vein carries nutrients directly to the liver before going to the general blood stream (system?) Cardiovascular system
Water soluble nutrients transfer to the circulatory system through capillary beds (system?) Cardiovascular system
Once absorbed through stomach or intestines nutrients are Used to nourish organs Or transferred through the hepatic portal vein to the liver (system?) Cardiovascular system
Comprised of lymphatic vessel and fluid. (System?) Lymphatic system
One of my functions is to remove foreign substances from blood and lymph (system?) Lymphatic system
I'm responsible for maintaining tissue fluid balance (system?) Lymphatic system
My vessels in the small intestines aid in fat digestion and absorption (system?) Lymphatic system
I remove waste products from blood to create urine (system?) Urinary system
I maintain acid-base balance (PH) of blood Urinary system
I convert a form of vitamin D into active form and stimulate red blood cell synthesis Urinary system
What is urine Water, dissolved waste products of metabolism and excess water soluble vitamins and minerals
I'm tied to a strong cardio system (consumption of sufficient fluid and maintenance of bp) function and system? Kidney function - urinary system
Involved in bone health because they convert a form of Vitamin D into active form, organ? Kidney
I direct sensations in your body and overall movement (system?) Nervous system
I control physiological and intellectual function (system?) Nervous system
Transmission of my signals occur through a change in concentration of sodium and potassium in the neuron. (System?) Nervous system
Neurotransmitters, a compound made by nerve cells that allows for cells to communicate is often made from nutrients like amino acids (system?) Nervous system
I need carbohydrates in the form of glucose as my primary fuel (system?) Nervous system
What are some essential nutrients of the nervous system? Calcium: release neurotransmitters from neurons Vitamin B-12:helps myelin sheath (insulation around neuron) Carbohydrates:(primary glucose) fuels brain
I regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction, and other functions by releasing hormones (system?) Endocrine system
I regulate glucose (insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, and growth hormone) metabolism Endocrine system
Gaining of weight because metabolism is slowed down Hypothyroidism
Decrease blood glucose Take in & store glucose, fat, & amino acids by cells Insulin
Increase blood glucose Releases glucose from liver stores, releases fat from adipose tissue Glucagon
Increases body metabolism & blood glucose Releases glucose & fat into body Norepinephrine, epinephrine
Promotes amino acid uptake from cells, increase blood glucose Promotes protein synthesis &growth, increases use of fat for energy Growth hormone
Increases oxygen consumption, growth, &brain development Protein synthesis, increase metabolism Thyroid hormone
I provide defense against pathogens (system?) Immune system
I form white blood cells (system) Immune system
My cells turnover rapidly so I need a steady intake of nutrients including proteins, essential fatty acids, iron, copper, zinc, vitamin A,C,D and some B. Immune system
The immune system is like??? Denfense line
Produce antibodies (immunoglobulins) to target foreign proteins (antigens) White blood cells
I alter food and beverages you consume so your body can use the nutrients (system) Digestive system
I break down food both mechanically and chemically (system) Mechanically-chewing Chemically-acids and enzymes Digestive system
The digestive system is made up of...(8) Mouth Esophagus Stomach Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Small/large intestines Rectum
Pain in upper chest caused by acid from stomach into esophagus (digestive problem/fix) Heartburn/acid reflux Don't smoke, avoid NSAID, maintain healthy body weight, eat small/low fat meals, limit alcohol and caffeine, avoid acidic & spicy foods, and carbonated drinks
Caused by erosion of esophagus, stomach, or small intestines (digestive problem/fix) Ulcers Don't smoke, minimize NSAID, avoid foods that aggravate symptoms
Ignoring urge to poop, calcium or iron supplements & meds can cause it (digestive problem/fix) Constipation Eat fiber, occasionally use laxatives
Swollen veins in rectum & any. Triggers= obesity, pregnancy, sitting, and straining during bm (digestive problem/fix) Hemorrhoids Eat more fiber and take in more fluids
Cholesterol forms crystal like particles in gallbladder (digestive problem/fix) Gallstones Avoid excessive weight or rapid weight loss, limit animal protein, eat high fiber diet, avoid caffeine & alcohol
Genetic predisposition leads to inflammatory reaction to gluten. Autoimmune response/not food allergy (symptoms=diarrhea, bloat, cramps, and gas) (digestive problem/fix) Celiac disease Gluten free diet
Leads to GI symptoms, fatigue, headache, muscle & joint pain, sleep d/o (digestive problem/fix) Gluten sensitivity Not clear cause, so change of diet
What does NSAIDs mean? Non-sterodial anti-inflammatory drugs
The stomach is protected from digesting itself by producing? A) bicarbonate B) a thick layer of mucus C) hydroxyl ions to neutralize acids D) antipepsin that destroys enzymes B) a thick layer of mucus
The lower esophageal sphincter is located between the... A) stomach and esophagus B) stomach and duodenum C) ileum and the cecum D) colon and the anus A) the stomach and the esophagus
A muscular contraction that propels food down the GI tract is called.. A) sphincter B) enterohepatic circulation C) gravitational pull D) peristalsis D) peristalsis
Bicarbonate ions (HCO3) from the pancreas.. A) neutralize acids in the stomach B) are synthesized in the pyloric sphincter C) neutralize bile in the duodenum D) neutralize acids in the duodenum D) neutralize acids in the duodenum
What is the pyloric sphincter Valve located at the base of the stomach that controls the rate in which chime is released into the small intestines
Most digestive processes occur in the? A) mouth B) stomach C) small intestines D) large intestines C) small intestines
Bile is formed in the _______ and stored in the _____. A) stomach, pancreas B) duodenum, kidney C) liver, gallbladder D) gallbladder, liver C) liver, gallbladder
Much of digestion that occurs in the large intestines is caused by? A) lipase B) pepsin C) saliva D) bacteria D) bacteria
Treatment of ulcers may include... A) H2 blockers B) proton pump inhibitors C) antibiotics D) all of the above D) all of the above
The study of how food impacts health through interaction with genes is.. A) nutrigenomics B) epidemiology C) immunology D) nutrigenetics A) nutrigenomics
Energy production that takes place in the cytoplasm is anaerobic metabolism because it does not require.... A) water B) oxygen C) anabolic steroids D) anaerobic bacteria B) oxygen
Created by: Capty103
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