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Car/Pul Unit 2

SPC Cardiopulmonary Physiology Unit 2 Exam 1B

QuestionAnswer
What condition is associated with Alveolar dead space? Pulmonary Embolism
What is alveolar dead space? Ventilation without Perfusion
What blood vessels are associated with Anatomic shunt? Thebesian Veins
What is a Capillary Shunt? Same as Pulmonary Shunt Perfusion w/o Ventilation
What conditions are associated with Capillary Shunt? Atelectasis and Alveolar Fluid
What is Anatomic Dead Space? The conducting airways, estimated as 1ml/lb of ideal body weight
What is Alveolar Dead Space? Non-perfused Alveoli
What is Physiologic Dead Space? Anatomic + Alveolar Dead space known as (VD/VT)
What is the formula for the Bohr equation? (VD/VT)=(PaCO2-PeCO2)/PaCO2
What is the normal range of (VD/VT)? .20-.40
What is the VA ratio? 1.0 - VD/VT
What is the formula for VA? VE x VA ratio
What does VE stand for? Minute Ventilation
How do you calculate minute ventilation (VE) Tidal Volume(VT) x Frequency(f)
What is the relationship between Dead Space ventilation and respiratory rate? Direct correlation between Respiratory Rate and (VD/VT) i.e. Rapid, shallow breathing with INCREASE VD/VT
What is (VD/VT)? Dead space ventilation per tidal volume
What muscles are part of Passive Inspiration? Diaphragm & External Intercostals
What are the 4 accessory muscles of Inspiration? 1. Scalenes 2. Sternocleidomastoid 3. Pectoralis Major 4. Trapezius
What are the 5 accessory muscles of Expiration? 1. Rectus Abdominus 2. Transverse Abdominus 3. External Oblique 4. Internal Oblique 5. Internal Intercostals
What does VT mean? Tidal Volume- Normal resting breath (5-7ml/Kg)
What does IRV mean? Inspiratory Reserve Volume- Max breath in "on top of VT"
What does ERV mean? Expiratory Reserve Volume- Max breath out "from bottom of VT"
What does RV mean? Residual Volume- Gas in lungs following a max expiratory effort
What TLC mean? Total Lung Capacity- The volume in the lungs at maximal inflation, the sum of Vital Capacity(VC) and Reserve Volume(RV)
What does VC mean? Vital Capacity- The volume of air breathed out after the deepest inhalation
How do you calculate Vital Capacity(VC)? VT+IRV+ERV=VC
What does IC mean? Inspiratory Capacity- The sum of VT+IRV
How do you calculate Inspiratory Capacity(IC)? VT+IRV=IC
What does FRC mean? Functional Residual Capacity- The volume in the lungs at the end-expiratory position
How do you calculate Functional Residual Capacity(FRC)? RV+ERV=FRC
What volumes increase with an obstructed lung? TLC, VT, FRC, RV
What volumes decrease with an obstructed lung? IRV, VC, ERV, IC
What is the difference between obstructed lung and restricted lung? Obstructed lung allows inspiration but not expiration WHERE AS Restricted lung does not allow inspiration.
What is an Obstructed Lung? Lung that allows inspiration but not expiration causing an enlarged lung
What is a Restricted Lung? Lung that does not allow full inspiration or full expansion
What volumes increase with a restricted lung? None
What volumes decrease with a restricted lung? IRV, VT, VC, IC, ERV, RV, FRC, TLC
What does (CLung) mean? Lung Compliance
What does (CThorax) mean? Thoracic Compliance
What does (CLT) mean? Total Lung/Thoracic Compliance
What is normal for Lung Compliance? 0.2L/cmH2O
What is normal for Thoracic Compliance? 0.2L/cmH2O
What is normal for Lung/Thoracic Compliance? 0.1L/cmH2O
Calculation for Compliance is? Change is Volume(V)/Change is Pleural Pressure(P) or V/P
How to calculate Total Compliance? 1/CL + 1/CT = 1/CLT
Low Lung compliance indicates what diseases? Pneumonia, Pulmonary Edema
Low Thoracic Compliance indicates what diseases? Kyphoscoliosis, Ascites, Gross Obesity
T/F Elastance or Elastic Recoil is the opposite of Compliance? True
Elastance calculation is what? The change of Pleural Pressure/The change is Volume or P/V
What is normal for elastance? 5cmH2O/L
Low Elastic Recoil indicates what disease? Emphysema
What substance is produced by TYPE II pneumocytes? Surfactant
What is Dipalmityl-Lecithin? A phospholipid that dramatically reduces Alveolar Surface Tension forces
T/F Surfactant reduces the surface tension on the alveoli? True
Laplace's Law formula is? P=(4ST)/r
P in Laplace's Law means what? Pressure
ST in LaPLACE'S Law means what? Surface Tension
r in LaPLACE'S Law means what? Radius
What is the relationship between Radius of a Sphere and Surface Tension? As the radius of the sphere increases the pressure decreases
What are the general causes of surfactant deficiency? Acidoses, Hypoxia, Hyperoxia (High FIO2), Atelectasis, Prematurity, Pulmonary Vascular Congestion
What are the specific causes of surfactant deficiency? ARDS, IRDS, Pulmonary Edema, Drowning, Oxygen Toxicity, ECMO
P-V curves are what kind of curves? Compliance Curves
A horizontal reflection denotes what? Low compliance Little Volume for lots of Pressure
A vertical reflection denotes what? High compliance Lots of Volume for little Pressure
P-V significance of Horizontal Curve (Low Lung Compliance)? Pneumonia, Pulmonary Edema, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Atelectasis
P-V significance of Vertical Curve (High Lung Compliance)? Emphysema (Low Elastance)
What is the abbreviation for Airway Resistance? (RAW)
What is airway resistance? Frictional resistance afforded by the airways.
What is the normal range for Airway Resistance? 1-2 cmH2O/liter/sec
High values of (RAW) indicate what? Asthma & Chronic Bronchitis
What is the abbreviation for Conductance? (GAW)
What is the formula for Airway Resistance(RAW)? Change in Pressure/Flow Rate
T/F Conductance(GAW) is the opposite of Airway Resistance(RAW) True
What is Conductance? Ease of Flow
What is the formula for Conductance(GAW)? Flow/Unit Pressure
What is the normal range for Conductance? 0.5-1.5 L/sec/cmH2O
Low values of (GAW) indicate what? Asthma & Chronic Bronchitis
How does chest wall tissue contribute to resistance of breathing? Impedance to motion caused by the thorax & abdomen and also affords approximately 20% of breathing resistance in healthy adults
How does airway resistance contribute to resistance of breathing? Impedance to movement of gas through the airways and also affords approximately 80% of breathing resistance in healthy adults.
Of the 80% airway resistance has on breathing how is that broken down through the airways? 1. Mouth, Nose, & large bronchi = 90% Bronchi < 2mm in diameter = 10%
What are the factors that effect airway resistance? Bronchospasm, Secretions, Mucosal Edema, Low Elastance, Artificial Airways (Trach & ET Tube)
What are the 2 types of flow? Laminar & Turbulent
What is Poiseuille's Law? Address Laminar Flow, occurs in the small airways <2mm in diameter
What is the formula for Poiseuille's Law? Flow-Pr^4
What does the P & r stand for in Poiseuille's Law? P=Pressure & r=radius
What is a rule of thumb for Poiseuille's Law? 16 fold jump in P as r decreases 50%
What is Reynolds Number equation? (2rvd)/n
What does Reynolds number address? Turbulent Flow
What does r, v, d, and n stand for in Reynolds' number? r=airway radius, v=velocity, d=density, and n=viscosity
Reynolds number >2000 establishes what? Turbulent Flow
T/F Low density gas will decrease turbulence and W.O.B.? True like He vs. O2
What are 4 indications for use of low density gas? 1. Stridor 2. Croup 3. Foreign body aspiration 4. Upper airway masses
What is the Time Constants formula? Kt = Raw x CL
Define Time Constants? Defined as the time (seconds) to inflate a lung region to about 60%of its potential filling capacity
T/F Kt = seconds True
What is considered normal Time Constant(Kt)? Kt = .2 x 1 = .2 seconds
What is considered long Time Constant(Kt)? Kt = .2 x 10 = 2.0 seconds i.e. Asthma or Bronchitis OR Kt = .4 x 10 = 4.0 seconds i.e. Emphysema
What is considered short Time Constant(Kt)? Kt = .05 x 2 = .1 seconds i.e. Pneumonia, IRDS, ARDS, or Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema
What does IRDS stand for? Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
What does ARDS stand for? Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Created by: Langhout1418