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Unit 5 6th Grade

Properties of Energy

TermDefinition
energy the ability to cause change
kinetic energy energy in motion
potential energy the energy stored in an object or a material
law of conservation of energy a physical law that states that energy may change form but it cannot be created or destroyed
wave a disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another
wavelength the distance between two waves' crests or two waves' troughs
amplitude the height of a wave from its trough or crest to its midpoint
frequency a measure of how many wave crests or troughs pass a given point in one unit of time
sound wave a compressional wave produced by vibrations in matter
transparent allowing light to pass through with almost no distortion
translucent allowing some light to travel through and blocking some light or bouncing it in different directions
opaque not allowing light to pass through
refraction the change in direction of a wave because of a change in the medium it is traveling through
electromagnetic wave a wave that can travel through matter or space
radio waves the lowest-frequency electromagnetic waves that have wavelengths greater than about 0.3 m and are used in most forms of communication technology - such as TVs, telephones, and radios
infrared wave electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 1 mm and 0.7 millionths of a meter
ultraviolet radiation electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between about 0.4 millionths of a meter and 10 billionths of a meter; has frequencies and wavelengths between visible light and X-rays
gamma rays the highest-energy electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies
heat the flow of thermal energy from warmer to cooler objects
conduction the movement of energy, such as heat and electricity, through direct contact
convection the transfer of energy by the flow of a liquid or a gas
radiation the transfer of thermal energy through electromagnetic rays
specific heat the amount of heat energy, usually measured in joules, needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree C
electricity a flow of electrons, or that particles have negative electrical charges
static electricity the buildup of an electric charge, either positive or negative, on a material's surface
current electricity the flow of electrons moving through a circuit
generator a device that converts mechanical energy - supplied by a hand crank, a turbine, or a motor - into electricity
chemical potential energy the energy stored in a material as a result of chemical bonds
elastic potential energy the energy stored in something that can stretch or compress
gravitational potential energy the energy stored in objects due to their position above Earth's surface
reflection the bouncing of a wave off an object, changing its direction of travel
law of reflection a physical law that states that the angle between an incoming light ray and a surface is equal to the angle between the reflected light ray and the same surface
visible light a mixture of wavelengths that the human eye can detect
X-rays high-energy electromagnetic waves that can be used for medical diagnosis
resistor a material through which electricity has difficulty flowing
series circuit a circuit with only one path along which current electricity can flow
parallel circuit a circuit with multiple paths along which current electricity can flow
Created by: SSmith01