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Change Management

Innovation to Change Management

Rogers and Shoemaker book, Communication of Innovations, presented adopter categories (stakeholders) and the diffusion curve
Adopter groups Per Rogers and Shoemaker, five adopter groups of innovation that generally fits the normal (diffusion) curve
Adopter group: Innovators 2.5% , eager to try new ideas; cosmoplitan, willing to take risks, seek info on broad networks
Adopter group: Early adopters 13.5%, high degree of opinion leadership, localized,look to innovators for advice/info;leaders, respected role models; adopting idea/practice + in initiating change
Adopter group: Early majority 34%, not leaders, but backbone of organization; deliberate thinking in acceptance of idea, natural bridge between early and late adopters
Adopter group: Late majority 34%, skeptical; social/financial pressure influences their adoption of innovation
Adopter group: Laggards up to 16%, isolated, uninformed, distrust change/change agents; keep organization from changing too quickly (+)
In general, people who are more receptive to innovation are better educated, more literate, higher socioeconomic status, more income, higher occupational prestige, greater social mobility; better socially networked; cosmopolitan, diverse interests, well integrated
Four innovator roles have been identified for successful implementation of an innovation
Innovator role: Inventor (innovator) develops new idea or practice in organization
Innovator role: Champion Assists in overcoming barriers, believes in the innovation idea
Innovator role: Sponsor high-level manager who approves, protects the idea; expedites testing/approval; removes barriers
Innovator role: Critic crucial, sometimes overlooked role, essential to challenge the innovation, provide reality test for the new idea
Organization development (OD) process in which organization reflects on its own processes and then revises them for improved performance
Widely accepted definition of OD effort planned, organization-wide, managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned intervention in organization's processes, using behavioral-science knowledge
An OD Change Agent Function (Blake and Mouton, 1976): ACCEPTANCE FUNCTION uses counseling skills to help manager sort emotions to gain more objective perspective of organization
An OD Change Agent Function (Blake and Mouton, 1976): CATALYTIC FUNCTION helps collect and interpret data about the organization
An OD Change Agent Function (Blake and Mouton, 1976): CONFRONTATION FUNCTION challenges the manager's thinking processes and assumptions
An OD Change Agent Function (Blake and Mouton, 1976): PRESCRIPTIVE FUNCTION tells the manager what to do to correct a given situation
An OD Change Agent Function (Blake and Mouton, 1976): THEORY AND PRINCIPLE FUNCTION helping the client system internalize alternate explanations of what is occurring in the organization
Advantage of Internal change agents includes familiarity with organization; respected;strong interpersonal relationships to foster change; internal expertise, vested interest in outcome.
Disadvantage of internal change agents includes potential for bias, blinders to some problems, duty overload/neglect due to change agent role, subjective
External change agent advantage objective, fresh outside view, knowledge base for benchmarking, new skills and outlook, more observational
External change agent disadvantage no history with client, potential for overly influenced by administration(hired them), cost
Lewin's Stages of Change identified the initial stage of unfreezing the status quo; presenting discrepancies between status quo and desired goals
Unfreezing the status quo leads to motivation to change the situation to make perceptions congruent -moving to the new desired state
After unfreezing the status quo and moving to new desired state, the final stage is refreezing - the new behaviors become stable as the previous status quo was
Kubler-Ross Stages of Grief for terminally ill can have parallel comparison to changes in the healthcare system and can be helpful in working with people in dramatic transition, including organizational change
Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief: #1 Shock and denial
Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief: #2 Anger
Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief: #3 Bargaining
Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief: #4 Depression
Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief: #5 Acceptance
Resistance to change. "If you wish to understand something, try changing it" (Kurt Lewin) refers to the observation that when one attempts to change a system, mechanisms that maintain it spring to its defense
First step in reducing resistance to change is to understand its source
To confident change leaders, indications of resistance can be viewed as useful information about what stakeholders need before the transition can continue.
Managers/leaders role is to facilitate change movement from stage to stage. Bridges' Stages of Transition begins with: the recognition that the old way of doing things is ENDING (sense of loss and resulting grief, blame, shock, fear)
It is helpful in the ENDING transition phase for managers to provide reasons for the ending, indicate what will not change, overcommunicate to ensure sufficient knowledge is assimilated; acknowledging loss is helpful
Second transition stage after ENDING is the NEUTRAL ZONE - old system is gone, new system is not fully accepted with resulting anxiety, uncertainty, confusion.
Helpful measures during the NEUTRAL ZONE phase include support, encouragement, reassurance, protection; employees need to know where they are/where they are going; give staff oppy to generate ideas to move forward
Third, last transition phase, is NEW BEGINNINGS, people accept, orient, and engage.
Management capitalizes on third transition phase of NEW BEGINNINGS by creating new goals to provide direction, reinvent/reintegrate worker relationships; support new beginning attitudes/behaviors - role-modeled in leaders; retraining, performance feedback, positive recognition
Reflection is the process of examining one's experience
Reflective learning cycle stages Doing, reflection, interpretation, application
Created by: Janas
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