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Leadership Theory

Trends in Leadership Theory

TermDefinition
Normative Decision Tree yes/no questions that lead to outcome; leader can decide on level of decision-making involvement
Level of decision-making involvement autonomous, consultative, delegative; autocratic/ democratic
Consideration leadership (per Ohio & Michigan Studies) attention to interpersonal aspects of work; human needs focus
Initiating Structure Leadership (per Ohio & Michigan Studies) task-focused, giving direction, setting goals/limits, planning/scheduling; goal attainment focus
Leadership Grid (Blake and Moutin, U of Texas) marked off degrees of emphasis using 9-pt scale, separating grid into 5 styles of management, combined people and production emphasis
Great Person Theory excelling in one sphere, failing in another; inborn ability, natural leader, shining star versus lacking leadership skills where needed elsewhere
Trait approach replaced the great person model, often grouping traits into categories, and proposed that leaders possess a collection of traits/qualities distinguishing them from nonleaders; "the right stuff"; weak theory in the research analysis of leaders, though leading traits/skills were ID'd
Some of the more important Leadership Traits include adaptability, social alertness, ambition, assertiveness, cooperativeness, decisiveness, energy, stress tolerance, confidence
Some of the more important Leadership Skills include intelligence/conceptual ability, creativity, tact, verbal fluency, work knowledge, organization, persuasion
Traits absolutely required for leadership no single traits absolutely required for leadership ID'd; just greater likelihood with some traits/skills for leader effectiveness
autocratic leadership groups perform well as long as they are closely supervised; though member satisfaction is low
democratic leadership members perform well w-w/o leader's presence, members more satisfied
autocratic/democratic leadership referenced in Douglas McGregor's formulation of theory X and Y
Tannenbaum and Schmidt leadership continuum describes 7 degrees of leader involvement in decision; autocratic end of continuum to democratic end (boss-centered to subordinate-centered)
Fiedler's Contingency Model (of leadership) uses Least-Preferred Worker (LPC) Scale to assess degree of manager's task/relationship orientation
In Fiedler's Contingency Model the favorability (fit) of the leader depends on (contingency) three situational factors: Leader-member relations (group atmosphere); task structure (how well defined); position power (leader authority to direct others)
The greater the favorability to the leader in Fiedler's Contingency Model, the more the subordinates can be relied on to carry out the task; fewer challenges to leadership
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Model (of leadership) does not explain why things happen; offers recommendations for behaving differently under various conditions
To the task and social dimensions already in play, the Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Model (of leadership) added a third dimension: Worker immatury-maturity
Job maturity refers to how much work-related ability, knowledge, experience, skill a person has
Psychological maturity refers to willingness, confidence, commitment, motivation related to work
Behaviors associated with maturity include initiative, dependability, perseverance, receptiveness to feedback, goal orientation, minimal need for supervision
Applying a directive approach with mature workers can result in stifling their maturity to the point of forcing them back to lower levels of maturity
Hersey and Blanchard suggested leadership style should be adusted to the stage of team development: S1, S2, S3, S4 - corresponds to worker maturity through these stages
Path-Goal Theory, rather than focusing on motivation of leader, examines the motives and needs of subordinates and how leader can respond to them.
expectancy theory of motivation proposes that one's degree of effort is influenced by the expectation that the effort will result in the attainment of desired goals/meaningful rewards
Path-goal theory states that a person's ability to perform task is related to direction and clarity available that lead to organizational goals; four situations ID'd; basic premise: clear instructions improve performance
Dyadic Relationship Theory; Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and vertical dyad linkage (VDL) are micro theories that focus on dyadic relationships which are relationships between two people or between a leader and a small group; address ingroup/outgroup relationships; mentoring
exchange relationship leader offers greater oppy/privilege to subordinate in exchange for loyalty, commitment, assistance
Values-based Leadership core beliefs guide and motivate attitudes/actions, express organization culture; ethical leaders tend to promote more trust and loyalty
Servant-Leadership Model (Values-Based) 10 essential values, popular model among companies: Southwest Airlines, Toro Company, TDIndustries, Men's Warehouse, Servicemaster...
In order for servant leadership to work collaboration across disciplines and levels is necessary; studies in healthcare settings found physicians less willing than nurses to work in collaboration
Created by: Janas
 

 



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