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Chapter 3: Intro to

TermDefinition
Heritability Responsible for both looks and behavior
CNS Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord)
ANS Controls automatic functions of the body (glands and muscles) 2 categories (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic)
Sympathetic nervous system Fight or flight response Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, and slows digestion
Parasympathetic nervous system Clams body and conserves energy
Neurons Basic working unit of the brain, a specialized cell designed to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers released by terminal buttons through the synapse
Axon Passes messages away from cell body to other nerves
Dendrites Receives messages from other cells
Synapse Space between two nerve cells
Cerebellum Involved in motor coordination
Cerebral Cortex Governs higher brain functions (Thinking, learning, and your conscience)
Cerebrum Protects the brain
Corpus Callosum Provides a channel for communication between the hemispheres
Forebrain Cognitive, sensory and motor functions, regulates temperature, and reproductive functions
Frontal Lobe Controls motor functions, problem solving, memory, language, and judgement
Hindbrain Regulates breathing, heart rate, arousal, and other basic functions for survival
Hypothalamus Governs eating, drinking, arousal. Plays a role in emotions and stress.
Limbic System Emotion and motivation
Medulla Governs breathing and reflexes
Midbrain Controls eye muscles, auditory and visual information, and voluntary movement
Occipital Lobe Visual processing center of the brain
Parietal Lobe Sensation and perception of touch
Pons Sleep and arousal
Primary motor cortex Motor function
Thalamus Relays information between lower and higher brain centers
Temporal Lobe Processes sensory and auditory input
Twin studies Looks at two identical twins that grew up in different environments How the environment affected them
Neural transmission Dendrites receive electrical stimulation from other neurons that are then sent to the cell body or stoma. The Axon transmits nerve signals away from the soma to other neurons. Most neurons have only one axon.
EEG Records the electrical activity of the brain Patients get electrode placed on their scalp (Does activities) Shows when brain activity occurs but not where
MRI Magnetic fields are used to produce detailed images of structures Patient lies still on a bed or platform Good for looking at structures (Abnormalities and injuries)
fMRI Produces detailed imaging of activity in the brain Track blood and oxygen in the brain Used to see what parts of the brain are using the most oxygen Patients preform tasks
PET Measures blood flow to areas of the brain Patients gets injected with radioactive oxygen and preforms tasks Oxygen is taken up by the brain and creates images
Endocrine System Glands secrete chemicals called hormones Hormones travel through the body and regulate body functions Works in conjunction with the nervous system and the brain
Hypothalamus Controls pituitary gland (Controls the release of hormones)
Thyroid Controls metabolism
Adrenal gland Releases hormones in response to stress and emotions Regulates heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar
Created by: kristaj