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# 105 Imaging physics

### Imaging physics

TermDefinition
radiologic physics physics that pertain to the origin, nature, and behavior of x-rays and related types of radiation
science organized and classified knowledge
unit a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement by which other quantities of the same kind can be measured
standard units the basic units in any particular system of measurement: they are used mathematically to describe natural phenomena, derive laws, and predict future events within the realm of nature.
fundamental units length, mass, time
length unit of length in metric is meter
mass quantity of matter in a body of inertia.
time the measure of the duration of events
area the measure of a given surface, depends length.
temperature a measure of the average energy of motion of the molecules of matter.
velocity speed in a given direction
MKS system metric system that is used internationally
specific gravity ration of the density of any material to the density of water
SI units International System which provides for interconversion of units among all branches of science
physics deals with matter and energy and their relation to each other
density mass per unit volume of a substance
work when a force acts upon a body over a distance
energy the actual or potential ability to do work
atom smallest particle of an element that has the characteristic properties of that element
matter anything which occupies space and has inertia
electron carry a negative charge move around the nucleus in an orbit
proton positive particle in nucleus
atomic mass (z) number of protons or positive charges in the nucleus in of an atom denotes the atomic number
element simple substance, cant be decomposed to simpler substances by ordinary means
law of conservation of energy energy can be neither created nor destroyed, the total amount of energy in the universe is constant
potential energy a body may have energy because of its position or its temporarily deformed state.
kinetic energy every moving body can do work because of its motion.
molecule smallest subdivision of a substance having the characteristic properties of that substance
substances any material that has a definite, constant composition
neutron elementary neutral particles having virtually the same mass as the proton
energy level electrons whose orbits are at a particular distance from the nucleus are grouped together and designated as belonging to a particular shell.
nucleus (a) contains most of the mass and denotes its mass number or atomic number.
ions atom or a group of atoms that has an electric charge
compound complex substances formed by a chemical union
ionization produced through addition or removal of orbital electrons
isotopes atoms of the same element having different mass numbers
electrification process of removing or adding electrons
friction removal of e- from one object by rubbing it with another of a different kind
electrostatics the branch of physics that deals with stationary or electric charges
ground connected to wet earth by a conductor
induction when a charged body is brought near an uncharged body
contact when a body charged by friction touches an uncharged object
electric circuit the path over which the current flows
potential difference difference in electrical potential energy between two points in an electric circuit
emf (electromotive force) the maximum difference of potential between the terminals of a battery
volts potential difference which maintain a current of ampere in a circuit whose resistance in one ohm
voltmeter measures in colts the potential difference between any two points in a circuit.
ammeter measures in amperes the quantity of electric charge flowing per second.
series circuit an electric circuit whose conponent parts are arranged end to end so that current passes consecutively through each part.
parallel circuit wherin the component parts are connected as branches of the main circuit so that the current is divided among them
direct current current of constant strength flowing always in the same direction
current electrical impulse. the amount of electric charge flowing per second
capacitor charged body stores electrical energy if it is insulated to prevent the charge from leaking away.
resistance property of the circuit which or hinders the flow of an electric current
conductor under certain conditions , electric charges can be made to drift through a suitable material ( metals)
insulator offer tremendous resistance to the flow of electricity ( glass, plastic, rubber)
magnetism the ability of certain materials to attract iron , cobalt or nickel
magnetic field a zone of influence
magnetic flux the more closely spaced lines the stronger will be the field.
magnetic induction when a piece of nonmagnetized iron is brought near one pole of a magnet, the end of the pole nearest the iron asumes the opposite polarity
magnetic permeability the ease with which a given material can be magnetized
ferromagnetic material magnetic material, includes iron cobalt and nickel
paramagnetic materials freebly attracted by a magnet. extremeley low magnetic permeability. ex. platinum
nonmagnetic materials not attracted by a magnet because they are not suscepticle to magnetic incduction . ex. wood, glass, and plastic
diamagnetic materials repelled by a magnet. ex beryllium and bismuth
Created by: nemracf13