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ARKY 305 midterm

Variation in phenotype Vp = Vg + Ve
Example of genocide still occurring today Rohingya muslims in Myanmar: Denied citizenship and displaced from their land.
Anthropology Takes a cross-cultural perspective and uses information from several disciplines. Emic approach - immersion and participation within other cultures.
Samuel Morton Physician who studied craniology and believed smaller heads made people duller and dumber
Stephen Jay Gould Found that brain sizes correlates with height and that Samuel Morton excluded smaller brained caucasians and Iroquois (taller) and included more Inca (shorter) in his craniology study. Showed that data shows no difference in brain size between races.
What is race? A way of differentiating/identifying people based on certain physical features such as skin colour.
In-group favouritism and out-group prejudice Begins as early as age three and begins to decline by age seven in North Americans
Tribalism Favouring in-group over out-group. Considered to be universal among humans.
Parry fractures Common injury seen in human warfare. Began showing up in archaeological evidence 15kya-present.
The Great Chain of Being Created by Aristotle and Plato. Has three tenets: Continuum of species, different levels of perfection, fixed pattern.
Linnean Classification Invented by Carolus Linnaeus. Bionomial nomenclature (genus and species). Classified H. sapiens into different subspecies bsed on race --> attempted to validate racial categories
Comte de Buffon Used cultural and behavioural characteristics to explain how human variation originated. Considered a heretic because at this time everyone believe that God designed everything.
Buffonian Classification Variation was due to biological divergence via evolutionary processes driven y changes in environment e.g. temperature and diet. His ideas were thrown out because they challenged God.
Blumenbach Coined the term "race" and "caucasian" Correlated physical traits with behaviourial traits
Louis Agassiz Humans have many different origins as indicated by "races" --> Polygenist
Monogenist Humans had a single origin and then spread and separated into separate species.
Linnean-Blumenbach approach Rejected in 1963 during the civil rights movement and the Buffonian approach was then adopted.
Why reject the race concept 1. Ignores evolutionary change 2. Ignores gene flow 3. Traits used to classify people into different groups are nonconcordant 4. Racial classifications are arbitrary
Hardy-Weinberg p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = all possible genotypic outcomes
Fixation index (Fst) Measure of population differentiation due to genetic structure --> heterozygosity Ranges between 0-1; 0 meaning genetically identical (more inbreeding between populations) and 1 maximum genetic difference (less inbreeding between populations)
Population - Interbreed (shared gene pool) - Most human populations exchange mates with others - population boundaries, mating choices, and movements of people are highly stochastic
Why reject race concept
Created by: zrisdon