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Christian Heritage

Exam 1

Theology Is there a God? Who is God and what does it mean?
Christology Discussion of who Jesus is; what is our relationship to Jesus?
Ecclesiology Theology of the church; how does the church relate to the world?
Ignatius Significance of church, bishop; first to defend against virgin birth; church governance, everything through bishop; point is unity; bishop of Antioch; "follow the bishop as Jesus followed the Father"
Ebionites Jesus not born of a virgin, son of Mary and Joseph; spirit came at baptism; first to defend the virgin birth in writing, eventually labeled as heretics
Docetism Flesh vs. Spirit; Jesus not really human flesh; "flesh is evil", matter far less than spirit, denied Jesus as matter
Gnosticism Knowledge; matter evil, spirit good; human suffering is result of spirit being trapped in matter; demiurge; escape physical world through knowledge&discipline; Christ revealer of special knowledge; Christ's body and death symbolic-teach us not accomplish
Demiurge Horrible, terrible creator that created Creation and trapped spirit and flesh
Irenaeus Recapitulation; apostolic succession; defense against Gnosticism; believes we should have all four gospels; must explain and have a point for why something is true
Marcion Argued difference between God of judgement of OT and God about which Jesus preached; kept Luke and edited Paul; OT does not = NT God
Montanism Spirit led movement; recover purity of early church; claimed to be returning to spirit led movement of early days; also challenged and declared heretical
Pliny the Elder Wrote to Trajan rules if Christians were accused; governor of Pontus/Birthynia
Trajan Emperor of Rome; agrees rules execution of Christians based on certain rules but "don't go knocking down doors unless they know yours down"
Nero (54-68) burning of Rome; blames Christians for fire
Domition (81-96) Imperial cult; promoted Roman gods to strengthen government; sacrifice to gods or execution
Septimius Serverus (193-211) Desire for united religion; Has to worship at lease this one; gives you document for sacrifice
Decius (249-251) Economic problems and abandonment of the gods
Diocletion (284-305) A fire (blames Christians) in the place, books burned in response
Martyrdom Stories "Popular" genre in early Christian literature; good examples for others interesting, sad, spread like wildfire; Polycarp; Perpetua & Felicity
Tertullian Well educated; had major problems with Greco Roman philosophy; issues with idxity of the church toward repentance; often called "father of Latin Christianity"; coins idea of trinity; believes faith is enough; but he does employ to develop ideas
Justin Martyr Big fan or Greco Roman philosophy; Logos = Jesus, little bit in all of us; basically everyone is Christian because of reason
Logos Reason; Ultimate Reason; wisdom
Origen Greco Roman philosophy; starts school; three fold way: body = literal, soul = deeper, spirit = really deep, sometimes misses body aspect, mother hid clothes so he wouldn't be martyred
Canon Original meaning = measure, comes to mean = "a group of texts that are authoritative for a community"
Apocrypha Hidden books
Muratorian 4 gospels, Acts, Paul's letters, and rest of NT minus Hebrews, James 1 and 2 Peter, plus Shepherd of Hermas
Festal Letter of Athanasius 367; has all books of current NT just in a different order
Constantine Leader and changer of a lot of things; takes control of Christianity at one point in time; has lots of power; emperor
Liceniius Partners with Constantine; agrees with content for a few years, but then disapproves of what he is doing, Constantine defeats him
Adoptionism Jesus was "adopted" by God; he wasn't always Christ but became Christ, probably at his baptism; emphasis on separation the two, Jesus and God
Sebellianism, Modalism Father -> Son -> Holy Spirit, different modes, any given time, God existed in one of these modes, different aspects perceived by people but not 3 distinct persons, so God and Jesus get collapsed into a single person
Arius Has solution; Jesus = Logos and Father = unitary principle behind Logos; Christ could not be coeternal with the Father
Council of Nicaea 325; decide who is going to get thrown out: Arius; homoocusion, co-eternal; Constantine presided over the council and urged unity; urged early to teach basics of Christianity (especially before baptism)
Athanaisus Bishop of Alexandria, defends Nicaea
Homoiousion Similar substances
Homoousion One substance with the father; God is one substance
Cappadocian Fathers Comes to help out a offer a solution to Nicaea; should clarify homoocusion and homoeosis; keep homoocusion and add hypostasis; gets to one substance, three persons
Hypostasis Three persons
Council of Constaninople 381; Affirmed Nicaea, hypostasis; clarified Holy Sprit
Tertillian Analogies; root, tree, fruit; sun, ray, apex/heat; fountain, river, stream; all same substance but there are 3 simultaneous expressions
Gregory of Nyssa God the Father through the Son to the Holy Spirit; you have life given to you by God and the Son and HS, you would have 3 lives, but we must just have one, that means there must be one God
Antioch Aristotle; more about classification; 2 natures, divine and human; Christ became "human"; exist alongside each other, he must have been both; Antrhopotokos (human bearer)
Alexandria Plato; 1 nature, monophysite; Word of God became "flesh"; implied interchangeability between Christ's humanity and divinity; Theotokos (God bearer)
Council of Ephesus 431; Cyril fights Notorious; they both try to excommunicate each other; Alexandria wins the day; end up using half of each ideas
Second Council of Ephesus 449; Dioscuros; monophysites, Alexandria wins again; Rome rejects the conclusion of the second council of Ephesus
Council of Chalcedon No to Dioscuros; embrace two natures of Christ; hold to theotokos of Mary (gets to stay mother of God); Antioch's view of nature; Alexandria's view on theotokos
Donatist Claimed that the bishop must be holy, and each individual must be holy for the church to be holy; no to bishops who tried to hand over text to diecotan; Rome says it's okay
Schematics Not heretics; more structural; about ecclesiology
Created by: jae_moore