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Pharma General

General Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Ability of drug to cross biologic membranes and enter blood = Absorption
Estimation of extent of spread of total drugs throughout the body = Distribution
Process of chemical alteration of drug molecules = Metabolism. Primary purpose is to inactivate drugs & increase water solubility to enhance renal elimination
Removal of a drug and its metabolites from the body = Excretion (kidneys, lungs, sweat breast milk)
Direct muscarinic agents MOA Mimic parasympathetic effects: decrease intraocular pressure, constrict pupils, lower HR; bronchoconstriction; increase GI smooth mx tone
Muscarinic AEs Bradycardia, diarrhea, N/V, incontinence, blurred vision
Indirect muscarinic agents (eg, ACH inhibitors): uses Alzheimer (donepezil, galantamine). MG (pridostigmine). Nerve agent antidotes (-stigmine).
Muscarinic antagonists examples Ipratropium. Atropine for brady. Scopolamine. Tolteridine & oxybutynin for incontinence.
Types of adrenergic agents Catecholamines, alpha and beta agonists.
Alpha-1 receptor agonists: MOA and examples Vasoconstriction, mydriasis, relief of nasal congestion. Midodrine (ortho hotn). Phenylephrine, epinephrine
Catecholamines: MOA and examples Norepinephrine (Levophed). Dopamine (Intropin)
Alpha-2 receptor agonists: MOA and examples Decrease CNS adrenergic activity => decrease HR / BP. Clonidine (HTN). Methyldopa (HTN, AIHA)
Miscellaneous alpha agonists: MOA and examples Oxymetazoline (alpha 1&2). Neosynephrine. Pseudoephedrine. Methylphenidate.
Alpha-1 receptor antagonists: MOA and examples Vasodilation, relax prostate & bladder neck. Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin.
Beta-1 receptor agonists: MOA and examples Stimulate cardiac/renal beta receptors => positive inotrope (increase CO) & renin release. Tx CHF. Dopamine, dobutamine
Beta-2 receptor agonists: MOA and examples Bronchodilation; relaxation of uterus. Terbutaline (delay premature labor). Albuterol. Salmeterol
Miscellaneous beta agonists: MOA and examples Isoproterenol: stimulates beta 1&2. Tx bradyarrhythmias / cardiac shock
Beta receptor antagonists: MOA Decreased CO, HR, contractility, renin secretion, decreased vasoconstriction. Increased Na / H2O retention, cardiac remodeling.
Beta blocker examples Nonselective: propranolol, timolol. Selective: metoprolol, atenolol. Other: labetolol, carvedilol
Created by: Abarnard
 

 



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