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PSYCH UNIT 2 TST 20

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian "Research Methods" Test Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What does the term Scientific Method refer to. This term refers to the set of objective procedures used by scientists such as psychologists to objectively research human behaviors and thought processes. (Pg. 31)
What does the term "theory" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "an explanation (or model) of how some observable phenomenon works." These are testable predictions that serve as the basis for research studies. (Pg. 31)
What does the term "research" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a scientific process involving the systematic and careful collection of data". (Pg. 31)
Why is it important for researchers to conduct a review of the literature before beginning their own study on a subject? This step is important because it lets the researcher know what types of studies have been completed on the topic they are about to begin as well as those study's outcomes.
What does the term "replication" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the act of repeating the same study with a different set of research subjects to see if the same results are achieved. (Pg. 32)
What is a variable? These are elements in a psychological study/ experiment that can be changed, such as available information or time taken to perform a given task. (Class notes.)
What is an Independent Variable? These are the elements in a psychological study that the researcher manipulates or changes. For example, the amount of time hospital patients spend with a therapy dog. (Class notes.)
What is a Dependent Variable? These are the elements in a psychological study that the researcher simply observes. This variable is NOT manipulated by the researcher. For example, hospital patient's blood pressure after a visit from a therapy dog. (Class notes.)
What are Descriptive Studies? These are types of research studies whereby the scientist simply observes subjects and takes notes about the behaviors they observe in order to objectively analyze their behavior. (Pg. 35)
List the two (2) types of Descriptive Studies. 1.) Naturalistic Observation; 2.) Participant Observation. (Pg. 35)
How are Naturalistic Observations done? In these types of studies, researchers remain separated from the situation & do not try to change it. (Pg. 35)
How are Participant Observations done? In these types of studies, researchers are involved in the situation. For example, a social psychologist once "joined" a doomsday cult to see how its members would respond when the world didn't end on the predicted date. (Pg. 35)
What are Longitudinal Studies? These are research studies in which the subjects are studies over a period of time. For example, researchers may ask participants to complete a survey about their professional growth every 2 years after graduation college until age 35. (Pg. 36)
What does the term Observer Bias mean/ refer to? This term refers to systematic errors in an Observational Study that happen due to the observer's expectations. (Pg. 36)
Explain the Third Variable Problem. This issue occurs when a researcher cannot directly manipulate variables. As a result, the researcher cannot be sure that some other, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences they observe in variables they are studying. (Pg. 39)
What are Correlational Studies? These are studies in which a researcher examines how variables are naturally related in the real world without attempting to alter them or assign causation between them. (Pg. 38)
What is one (1) reason that a researcher might use a Correlational Study? Researchers might use this type of study for ethical reasons. For example, it would be unethical to induce PTSD in returning veteran soldiers in order to study how this disorder effects learning rates upon their discharge from the service. (Pg. 39)
How are Control Groups used in research studies? These are groups of subjects that do not get the Independent Variable during the course of a study. They serve as a comparison group whose research results can be used to gauge the level of change in the experimental group. (Pg. 40)
How are Experiments conducted in psychology? In this type of study, researchers manipulate (or change) one variable to examine it's effect on a 2nd variable. These study types allow the researchers to have maximal control over the research situation. (Pg. 40)
What is the difference between a Population and a Sample? The Population is the group of people that the researcher wants to study. The Sample is a subset of people, chosen randomly, that the researcher actually studies. (Pg. 43)
What does the term External Validity mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the degree to which the findings in an experiment can be generalized outside of the laboratory". (Pg. 44)
Explain how Random Assignment works. This is done by placing research subjects into conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable. (Pg. 45)
How does Self - Report Bias happen? This phenomenon happens when research subjects answer questions during research studies so that they do not cast themselves in a negative light (instead of answering honestly). This may happen consciously or unconsciously. (Pg. 54)
List four (4) ways that psychological researchers can study a subject's biopsychological data. 1.) MRI Scans; 2.) PET Scans; 3.) fMRI Scans; 4.) EEG's. (Pg. 57 & 58)
What is the purpose of an Institutional Review Board (IRB)? These are groups of people who examine researcher's study proposals for any potential ethical or legal problems before allowing a study to proceed. (Pg. 58)
What is the difference between Discrete and Continuous Data? Discrete Data has finite values (EX: the number of questions on a test) while Continuous Data has in infinite number of values (EX: time to complete a task; which is due to the fact that time can be broken down into increasingly smaller measurements).
What is the difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Data? Quantitative Data is measureable data such as typing speed, weight in pounds, and time in seconds while Qualitative Data relates to categories such as model of care you drive, yes or no answers, or Pass/ Fail on a quiz or test. (Class notes.)
What does the Standard Deviation of a data set tell us? This statistic tells us the distance that a particular number is away from the Mean of that data set. (Class notes.)
What does the term Mean refer to (where statistics are concerned)? This refers to the "statistical average" of a data set. It is computed by adding up all of the numbers in the data set and dividing by the total number of data in the set. (Class notes.)
What does it mean if we get a "0" when we compute the "correlation coefficient" of a set of numbers? If we get this answer, it means that there is no linear relationship between the data that we are comparing.
Complete the following sentence: "When computing the correlation coefficient, your answer must be between ________ and ________." Your answer must be between +1 and -1. If you get an answer other than this, it means that you made a mistake in your calculations and that you should go back and check your work.
What does the term "population" mean/refer to (where Psychological research is concerned)? This term simply means "the group you want to know about". (Pg. 54)
What does the term "sampling" mean/refer to (where Psychological research is concerned)? This term refers to "the process by which you select people from the population to be in the sample". (Pg. 54)
What does the term "random sampling" mean/refer to? This term refers to the method of selecting participants in a research study. It gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen to participate. (Pg. 54)
What does the term "selection bias" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "unintended differences between the participants in different groups: it could be caused by nonrandom assignment to groups." (Pg. 55)
What is "culturally sensitive research"? These are "studies that take into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions". (Pg. 56)
Why is "informed consent" important in research studies? This is important because "research involving human subjects is a partnership based on mutual respect and trust. People who volunteer for psych. research have the right to know what will happen during the course of the experiment". (Pg. 59)
What does the term "confidentiality" mean/ refer to where research studies are concerned? This term means that personal, identifying information about participants "absolutely cannot be shared with others". (Pg. 58)
What does the term "anonymity" mean/ refer to where research studies are concerned? This term means that researchers do not collect personally identifying information about research subjects. Responses can never be traced back to any individual because of this. (Pg. 58)
What does the term "internal validity" mean/ refer to where research studies are concerned? This refers to "the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not to 'confounds' (i.e. extraneous, or 'third' variables)". (Pg. 63)
What does the term "random error" mean/ refer to where research studies are concerned? This term simply refers to unexpected and/or unavoidable problems that can occur during research studies. EX: Task completion times may vary based on the reaction time of the person operating the stop watch. (Pg. 65)
What does the term "meta - analysis" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a 'study of studies' that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion".
What does the term "central tendency" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole".
What does the term "reliability" where statistics are concerned? This term refers to "the degree to which a measure is stable and consistent over time".
What does the term "external validity" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, or situations".
What does the term "construct validity" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure".
Created by: sticklerpjpII