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Photography 1

TermDefinition
SLR single-lens reflex, cameras that use a mechanical mirror system to direct light through the lens to the viewfinder. when the shutter is pressed, the mirror flips up to expose the film
digital SLR digital cameras that use a mechanical mirror system to direct light through the lens to the viewfinder. when the shutter is pressed, the mirror flips up to expose the images sensor
image sensor in digital photography, this records an image as a set of electronic data rather than a chemical change on film
viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose and or focus the picture
lens a piece of glass with one or more curved surfaces, used to change the convergence of light rays
wide-angle lens a lens with an angle of view that is wider than a normal lens. any lens that is wider that what the eye sees
telephoto lens a lens that has a narrow angle of view. magnifies things and generally has a narrower depth of field. on a 35mm camera, this would be a lens with a focal length higher than 55mm
F-stop the diameter of the entrance pupil or opening, it is the focal length divided by the aperture diameter. lens aperture is calibrated to this, the size of the lens opening. a smaller number indicates a larger lens diameter opening
aperture a hole or opening in the lens through which light travels
ISO the measure of sensitivity to light. with film and digital photography, the higher the film speed, the granier the image will be
focus a point or area that is focused. a point in which light rays converge at a specific point, creating a sharp image
depth of field the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that are in focus. depth of field is 1/3 in front of and 2/3 behind the focal point
focal length the distance between the sensor or film plane and the lens when its focus point is at infinity. used to designate the size and angle oaf view for a lens
field of view view of anything in the camera's lens
exposure the total amount of light and time allowed for a correct ___________ during the process of taking a photo
shutter speed a common term used to discuss exposure time, the effective length of time a camera's shutter is open
autofocus optical system uses a sensor and a motor to focus objects within the focusing sensor range
metering determines the correct exposure with a specific ISO setting by combining shutter speed and aperture
raw image format aka digital negative, a camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor. they are not yet ready to be printed and must be converted to a positive file format such as jpeg or tiff for storage, manipulation and printing
JPEG joint photographic experts group, a commonly used method of compression for digital photography images. the degree of compression can be adjusted, typically within a 10:1 compression
TIFF tagged image file format, a standard file format for a non-compressed image
35mm photography 35mm is the basic film gauge most commonly used form film still photography. in 1934, Kodak introduced the 35mm wide film
medium format photography camera that uses a film or image sensor that is between 2 1/4" and 4x5"
large format photography describes large photographs and cameras, including pinhole cameras that use film or digital sensor 4x5" or larger. the most common large formats are 4x5" and 8x10"
lens hood an accessory that attaches to the front of a lens to shade and prevent light from hitting the surface of the lens, which causes lens flare
filter a camera accessory consisting of a glass or plastic disc, which can be screwed or clipped in front of the lens to change the appearance of an image. filters can distort, enhance, color correct or color change an image
polarizing filter filters out light polarized perpendicularly to the axis of the filter. it reduces reflections on some surfaces
macro lens has the ability to focus from infinity to very close up
photo manipulation the application of image editing techniques to photography in order to create illusion through digital means
photojournalism a form of journalism that creates images in order to tell a news story
fine art photography photographs that are created in accordance with the creative vision of the photographer as artist
post-production first stages of the photography process after the initial image has been made, this includes editing and manipulation
photomontage combining elements of multiple photos to create one image, usually during post production
double exposure a multiple exposure is when two or more individual exposures are made into a single photograph
archival acid-free materials used to preserve or slow the aging of documents/photographs that can quickly deteriorate over time due to dirt, dust, fluxuations in weather and humidity and handling
grayscale images are composed exclusively of shades of gray, varying from black to white
film a transparent cellulose nitrate or cellulose acetate composition made in thin, flexible strips or sheets and coated with a light-sensitive emulsion for taking photographs
grain particles that form the image on film or photo paper
developing a chemical solution used to convert the latent (invisible) image on film into a visible one
stop bath a solution that stops the effects of the developer
fixer chemical solution used to remove unexposed silver salts from developed negatives and prints
contacts placing a negative in contact with sensitized material, usually paper, and then passing light through the negative onto the material
spotting retouching of a photographic print using a brush with watercolors or dyes, or a pencil, to get rid of blemishes caused by dust or scratches on the negative
dodging shading a portion of the negative during printing to reduce exposure
burning adding light to certain parts of the image by extra exposure while the rest of the image is protected from the enlarger light
R.C. paper resin coated, paper that has a water repellent base and is used for making photographic prints
fiber paper photographic papers consist of a paper base coated with barytafiber-based papers are generally chosen as a medium for high-quality prints for exhibition, display and archiving purposes. these papers require careful processing and handling
darkroom filters used in photography to change the appearance of a scene by emphasizing, eliminating or changing color or density, generally so that the scene can be recorded with a more natural look, on a particular film or a digital sensor
multigrade paper a brand of black and white photographic paper coated with a mixture of emulsions which are sensitive to the color of the printing light used and which produce different contrast grades as a result
Created by: pace_sauce