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Instinct theories Motivation theory involving unlearned, uniform, and universal behavioral patterns. Does not work as well for humans
Sociobiological theories Motivation theory involving a genetic and evolutionary basis for social behavior in all animals. Difficult to test and can be controversial with stereotyping.
Homeostasis Drive theory involving staying the same, with a balance to reduce an internal state of tension - like hunger
Incentive theory Theory saying that external goals have a capacity to motivate behavior. Involves expectancy and value of the goal
Intrinsic motivation States that motivation is internal, usually from feeling satisfaction or fulfillment.
Extrinsic motivation States that motivation is external, usually from rewards or punishments.
Biological motives Extrinsic motivator that includes sleep, hunger, temperature, bathroom
Social motives Extrinsic motivator that includes achievement, affiliation, play, dominance
Arousal Theory Theory that emphasizes urge for optimal level of stimulation
Overjustification Rewarding a person for performing a task that a person considers adequately rewarded / worth doing for own's sake. Results in reduction of liking of a task (like getting paid for sport.)
Lateral hypothalamus Causes overeating when stimulated, stops eating when lesioned.
Ventromedial hypothalamus Stops eating when stimulated, causes overeating when lesioned.
Paraventricular nucleus Area of hypothalamus that plays larger role in hunger
Glucostats Neurons sensitive to glucose that uptake into cells from blood
Insulin This hormone must be present to extract glucose from the blood. If non-diabetics obtain a vaccination of this they get hungry
Cholecystokinin Hormone that makes one feel full
Leptin Hormone produced by fat cells that causes receptors to inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y - inhibiting eating
Observational learning Environmental factor that affects hunger by allowing models to shape eating habits
Classical conditioning Environmental factor that affects hunger by associating food with pleasant experiences
Obesity Defined as a BMI of above 30 (20% of Americans). Number increasing
Metabolic rate How fast one burns off calories. Said to be more genetic than environmental
Set point Natural area of stability in body weight - body monitors fat cells. Size of them changes not number.
Dietary restraint States that people on diets think of food more, so they eat more and gain more weight. Researched debatable.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) A projective test where one looks at a picture and writes a story about it
Projective tests Test when subjects respond to vague ambiguous stimuli revealing personal motives and traits
Affiliation Need to associate with others and maintain social bonds.
Achievement Need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, and maintain high standards.
Situational factors in achievement Probability of success (higher the better), and incentive value (the higher the better)
Cognitive, physiological, behavioral Aspects of emotion
Cognitive emotion Subjective conscious experience of emotion - relies on the subject's verbal response
Physiological emotion Actions of autonomic nervous system.
Limbic system (amygdala and hypothalamus) Part of body that modulates emotion
Galvanic skin response Measures increase in electrical conductivity of skin that occurs when one sweats - good measure of autonomic arousal
Polygraph machine Device that measures heart rate, respiration rate, GSR, and blood pressure. Can show change in autonomic arousal when subject is questioned - not necessarily good lying detector
Fast pathway Path through the eyes that sends fear signal to amygdala
Slow pathway Path that sends fear signal to cortex
Behavioral emotion Consists of facial expressions and body language - innate
Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust Six universal emotions
Facial feedback hypothesis Facial muscles send signals to brain, which help brain recognize emotion
Display ruels Different cultures have different rules regarding expression of emotions
James-Lange Theory of emotion that says conscious experience of emotion results from one's perception of autonomic arousal (sweat and pulse races, then must be afraid)
Cannon Bard Theory of emotion that says one can't tell the difference between physiological factor and emotion (pulse vs fear / anger / happiness). Two signals - one to autonomic, one to cortex
Schachter's Two factor theory Theory of emotion that says people look at the situation to determine what emotion they experience - combination of autonomic arousal and cognitive interpretation.
Evolutionary theory Theory of emotion that states that emotions developed for adaptive value (evolved before thought)
Created by: uriel_magana