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pharm chapter 29

fluids and electrolytes

TermDefinition
Blood fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carrying nutriment and oxygen to the body. consists of plasma, RBC, WBC, and platelets
Colloids protein substance that increase the colloid oncotic pressure.
Colloid oncotic pressure another name for the oncotic pressure. It is a gas form of osmotic pressure exerted by protein in blood plasma that tends to pull water into circulatory system
Crystalloids Fluids given by intravenous injection that supply water and sodium to maintain the osmotic gradient between the extravascular and intravascular compartments
Dehydration excessive loss of water from the body tissue. Accompanied by an imbalance in the concentrations of essential electrolytes, particularly SODIUM, POTASSIUM, and CHOLRIDE.
Edema the abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces
Extracellular fluid ECF the portion of the body fluid comprising the interstitial fluid and blood plasma
Gradient A difference in the concentration of a substance on two sides of a permeable barrier
Hydrostatic pressure (HP) the pressure exerted by a liquid
Hyperkalemia An abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, more often due to defective renal excretion but also caused by excessive dietary potassium or certain drugs such as POTASSIUM-SPARING diuretics or ACE inhibitors
Hypernatremia an abnormally high sodium concentration in the blood; may be due to defective renal excretion but is more commonly cause by excessive dietary sodium or replacement therapy
Hypokalemia a condition in which there is an inadequate amount of potassium, the major intracellular cation, in the bloodstream.
Hyponatremia A condition in which there is an inadequate amount of sodium, the major extracellular cation , in the bloodstream, caused by excessive water intake
Interstitial Fluid (ISF) The extracellular fluid that fills in the spaces between most of the cells of the body
Intracellular Fluid (IVF) the fluid inside blood vessels
Isotonic having the same concentration of a solute as another solution, such as an isotonic saline solution that contains an amount of salt equal to that found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid
Osmotic pressure the pressure produced by a solution necessary to prevent the osmotic passage of solvent into it when the solution and solvent are separated by a semipermeable membrane
Plasma the watery straw-colored fluid component of lymph and blood in which the leukocytes (WBC), erythrocytes (RBC), and platelets are suspended
Serum The clear, cell-free portion of the blood from which fibrinogen has also been separated during the clotting process as typically carried out with a laboratory sample.
Hypertonic Dehydration water loss is greater than sodium loss. ex. elevated temperature resulting in perspiration
Hypotonic Dehydration occurs when sodium loss is greater that water loss ex. renal insufficiency and inadequate aldosterone secretion
Isotonic Dehydration Caused by loss of both sodium and water from the body. ex. diarrhea and vomiting
Bleeding Tachycardia and hypotension
Bowel obstruction reduced perspiration and mucous secretions
Diarrhea Reduced urine output (oliguria)
Fever Dry Skin and mucous membranes
Vomiting reduced lacrimal (tears) and salivary secretions
Fresh Frozen Plasma Increase clotting factor levels in patients with a demonstrated deficiency
Packed Red Blood Cells Increase oxygen carrying capacity in patients with anemia,
Whole blood increases oxygen carrying capacity in patients with anemia, more beneficial in cases of extreme cases of loss of blood.