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momentum quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object
impulse product of force and time over which a force acts
impulse-momentum theorem The mass times the change in velocity or an object(momentum) equals the force times the amount of time (impulse).
law of conservation of momentum the total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects
perfectly elastic collision A collision in which the total momentum and kinetic energy are conserved
perfectly inelastic collision A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding
energy in collisions Inelastic collisions lose kinetic energy that is used to deform the objects. Elastic collisions conserve kinetic energy.
rotational motion movement in a circle or spinning
radian angle formed when arc length is equal to the radius of a circle
angular displacement change in angle
angular speed rate at which an object moves through an angle
angular acceleration rate of change in angular speed
tangential acceleration rate of change in linear velocity
centripetal acceleration acceleration toward the center of a circle
centripetal force net force acting toward the center of a circle keeping an object in a circular path
gravitational force force that is affected by the masses of objects and distances between them
escape speed the lowest velocity that a body must have in order to escape the gravitational attraction of a particular planet or other object
torque a quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis
lever arm The radius times the sine of the angle
center of gravity point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated
moment of inertia tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational motion
rotational equilibrium The state of an object when there is no net force or net torque
Newton's second law for rotational motion The torque of an object will equal it's moment of inertia times it's angular acceleration
angular momentum moment of inertia times angular speed
conservation of angular momentum angular momentum is conserved as long as there are no external torques
rotational kinetic energy one-half the moment of inertia times angular speed squared
efficiency Ratio comparing the amount of useful work to total work
fluid a non-solid state of matter in which the atoms of molecules are free to flow
mass density concentration of matter in an object
buoyant force upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in or floating on the fluid
Archimedes' principle an object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward force buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
negative buoyancy Buoyant force is less than downward force causing the object to sink
positive buoyancy Buoyant force is greater than downward force so the object floats
apparent weight gravitational force minus buoyant force, objects in fluids appear to weigh less
pressure magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area
Pascal's principle pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the container
absolute pressure The gauge pressure plus the atmospheric pressure
temperature measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance
viscosity the resistance to flow of a fluid
laminar flow steady and smooth flow
turbulent flow rocky flow in different directions
Venturi effect The speed of a fluid increases while cross-section area descreases
Bernoulli's principle the pressure in a fluid decreases as the velocity of the fluid increases
Bernoulli's equation The pressure plus one-half the density times velocity squared plus the density times gravitational acceleration times the elevation has to remain constant
ideal gas law (P1V1)/T1= (P2V2)/T2
internal energy the energy of a substance due to both the random motion of it's particles and to the potential energy that results from the distances and alignments
thermal equilibrium the state in which two bodies in physical contact with one another have identical temperatures
thermal expansion in general, increasing the temperature of a substance increases it's volume
thermometer calibrations based off of coefficients of volume expansion and calibrated using freezing and boiling points
Celsius to Kelvin conversion Tk= Tc+273
Celsius to Fahrenheit conversion Tf= 1.8Tc+32
heat energy transferred between objects because of a difference in temperature
specific heat capacity the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogenous material
calorimetry An experimental procedure used to measure the energy from one to another as heat. Hot objects are placed into a calorimeter and changes in temperature are recorded.
latent heat the energy per unit mass that is transferred during a phase change of a substance
phase change physical change in a substance from one state of matter to another at constant temperature and pressure
latent heat of fusion amount of energy needed to melt one kilogram
latent heat of vaporization amount of energy needed to boil one kilogram
thermal conduction transfer of heat through direct contact
clothing and climate in cold climates, clothes are made out of thermal insulators that trap air in so your body heat stays in. In hot climates, clothes are worn that cast off heat easily.
Hooke's law The restoring force of a spring depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the spring's equilibrium point
simple harmonic motion vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium
spring constant stiffness of a spring
elastic potential energy energy stored in elastic materials when there is a displacement from equilibrium
pendulum a weight hung from a fixed point so that it can swing freely backward and forward
amplitude the maximum displacement from equilibrium
period the times it takes a complete cycle to occur
frequency the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time
medium physical environment through which a disturbance can travel
mechanical wave a wave that requires a medium through which to travel
pulse wave a wave that consists of a single traveling pulse
periodic wave wave formed by the periodic motion of a wave source
crest highest point above equilibrium position
through lowest point below equilibrium position
transverse wave a wave whose particles vibrate periodically
longitudinal wave a wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling
compressional wave a wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling
wave speed speed at which a mechanical wave travels depends on medium
constructive interference a superposition of two waves in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave
destructive interference a superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave
reflection the change in direction of an electromagnetic wave at a surface that causes it to move away from the surface
standing wave a wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere.
compression region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure are at a maximum
rarefaction region of a longitudinal wave that in which the density and pressure are at a minimum
pitch a measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave
Doppler effect an observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer
intensity the rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of the waves
loudness human perception of sound intensity
decibel a dimensionless unit that describes the ratio of two intensities of sound
decibel scale based off of the threshold of human hearing; every increase in 10dB is equal to ten times the intensity of sounds
natural frequency the frequency at which an object will vibrate when set in motion
resonance a phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system, resulting in a large amplitude of vibration
human hearing humans can hear between 20 and 20,000 Hz
overtones integral multiples of the fundamental frequency
Created by: 18wiltan
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