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Rad Proc

Radiographic Procedures

Each innominate bone of the hip consists of what three parts? ilium, ischium and pubis Lange Q&A; pg 115
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the body? patella Lange Q&A; pg 112
A tangential or "sunrise" view clearly demonstrates which bone? patella Lange Q&A; pg 125
What is the largest and strongest bone in the body? femur Lange Q&A; pg 113
Male or females have a narrower, vertical and heart shaped pelvis? males Lange Q&A; pg 117
Diarthrotic or synovial joints are freely movable Lange Q&A; pg 92
What four ways can bones be classified? long, short, flat and irregular Lange Q&A; pg 94
What are primary barriers? protect from the useful beam Lange Q&A; pg 272
What are secondary barriers? protect from scattered and leakage radiation Lange Q&A; pg 272
What is reproducibility? a given group of exposure factors, output intensity must be consistent from one exposure to the next Lange Q&A; pg 262
What is linearity? output intensity must be constant when adjacent when mA stations are used, with exposure times adjusted to maintain the same mAs; any variation in output intensity must not exceed 10% Lange Q&A; pg 262
True or False: grids reduce the radiographic image by reducing the amount of scattered radiation fog. false; grids improves the radiographic image by reducing the amount of scattered radiation fog Lange Q&A; pg 263
What is roentgen? measures ionization in air, measures x- or gamma radiation only, is valid up to 3, in air Lange Q&A; pg 281
Rad = Gray Lange Q&A; pg 281
Rem = Sievert Lange Q&A; pg 281
Inflammation of a joint. Arthritis Lange Q&A; pg 93
The most common type of arthritis is? Osteoarthritis Lange Q&A; pg 93
Palmar surface parallel to IR, OID is increased. Perpendicular to the MCP. Pa thumb Lange Q&A; pg 103
Surface adjacent to the IR, fingers elevated and resting on a sponge. Perpendicular to the MCP. Projection of first digit, three articulations should be seen: CMC, CMP and IPJ. lateral thumb Lange Q&A; pg 103
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, ulnar surface down, radius and ulna superimposed. Perpendicular to midcarpal region. Carpals, superimposed proximal metacarpals, and distal radius and ulna. Lateral Wrist Lange Q&A; pg 103
Supinated and extended, epicondyles parallel to the IR, shoulder and elbow on the same plane. Perpendicular to midforearm. Radius and ulna, including wrist and elbow joints, arm must be supinated to avoid overlap of the radius and ulna. AP forearm Lange Q&A; pg 105
Flexed 90 degrees, epicondyles perpendicular to IR, forearm/wrist are lateral. Perpendicular to elbow joint at epicondyles. Elbow joint, proximal radius/ulna, distal humerus; radial head partially superimposed on ulna, olecranon process Lateral elbow Lange Q&A; pg 105
Arm extended and supinated; epicondyles perpendicular to IR. Perpendicular to midhumerus. Humreus, includes shoulder and elbow joints, greater tubercle in profile, epicondyles parallel to IR. AP humerus Lange Q&A; pg 105
Arm extended, elbow slightly flexed, back of hand against thigh. Perpendicular to coracoid process; internal rotation: lateral of humerus, shows lesser tubercle in profile. AP shoulder Lange Q&A; pg 106
Affected shoulder centered with MCP 60 degrees to IR. Perpendicular to should joint. Oblique shoulder; good for demonstration of dislocations. PA oblique scapular Y shoulder Lange Q&A; pg 106
Patient recumbent or erect; center affected clavicle to IR; less OID in PA projection. Perpendicular to midshaft. Entire length of clavicle and articulations best done PA erect or AP recumbent for patient comfort. AP or PA clavicle Lange Q&A; pg 108
Patient prone, leg rotated 5-10 degrees laterally; CR perpendicular to patella; patella including knee joint. PA patella Lange Q&A; pg 125
Patient supine, sagittal plane 2'' medial to ASIS, no pelvic rotation, leg rotated 15 degrees internally; CR to sagittal plane 2'' medial to ASIS at level of greater trochanter; hip joint, femoral neck & proximal femur. AP Hip Lange Q&A; pg 126
An undisplaced fracture. Simple fracture Lange Q&A; pg 131
Fractured end of bone has penetrated skin. Compound fracture Lange Q&A; pg 131
Break of cortex on one side of bone only; found in infants and children. Greenstick fracture Lange Q&A; pg 131
Response to repeated strong, powerful force. Stress/fatigue frature Lange Q&A; pg 131
Long fracture encircling a shaft, result of torsion. Spiral Lange Q&A; pg 132
An exaggerated thoracic curve is Kyphosis Lange Q&A; pg 133
Fracture of the distal tibia and fibula with dislocation of the ankle joint. Potts Fracture Lange Q&A; pg 132
Lateral curvature of the spine is Scoliosis Lange Q&A; pg 133
Patient supine, MSP perpendicular to the table, 15-20 degree cephalad to thyroid cartilage; Lower 5 cervical and intervertebral disk spaces. AP cervical spine Lange Q&A; pg 137
Patient left lateral recumbent; midaxillary line centered to grid, CR 5-8 degrees caudad to L3; vertebral bodies, interspaces, intervertebral foramina, spinous processes. Lateral lumbar Lange Q&A; pg 141
Patient supine or erect, MSP perpendicular to midline of table' top of IR 1'' above shoulder; CR perpendicular to IR, about T7; upper posterior ribs. AP ribs Lange Q&A; pg 148
Fracture of C2, with anterior subluxation of C2 on C3, result of forceful hyperextension. Hangman Fracture Lange Q&A; pg 151
Especially of spongy (cancellous) bone; diminished thickness or width as a result of compression type force. Compression fracture Lange Q&A; pg 151
Fracture of the orbital floor as a result of a direct blow. Blowout fracture Lange Q&A; pg 151
What are the facial bones? 2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 2 zygomatic/malar, 2 maxillae, 1 vomer, 1 mandible Lange Q&A; pg 154
Patient PA, nose and forehead on table; CR perpendicular to the lips; body and rami of mandible. PA mandible Lange Q&A; pg 161
Patient AP supine or erect; CR enters at level of EAM, expose on slow nasal inspiration; air-filled nasopharynx/upper airway. inspiration; air-filled nasopharynx/upper airway. (Lange Prep, p. 166) AP upper airway Lange Q&A; pg 166
Binds jejunum and ileum to posterior abdominal wall, fan-shaped Mesentery Lange Q&A; pg 179
Binds transverse and sigmoid colon to posterior abdominal wall. Mesocolon Lange Q&A; pg 179
What arteries supply the brain? Internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries Lange Q&A; pg 204
Oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart is pumped to the body tissues then back to the right side of the heart. Systemic circulation Lange Q&A; pg 204
Deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart is directed to the lungs for oxygenation then to the left side of the heart. Pulmonary circulation Lange Q&A; pg 204
hat encloses the heart and roots of the great vessels? Pericardium Lange Q&A; pg 202
The heart wall is made of what three layers? Epicardium, myocardium and endocardium Lange Q&A; pg 202
Patient supine; CR to level of crest; kidneys, liver, spleen, psoas muscles, calcifications/masses. AP abdomen Lange Q&A; pg 182
What are the three parts of the stomach? Fundus, body, pylorus Lange Q&A; pg 179
pright or recumbent; Centered with arm abducted and elbow flexed. Perpendicular to midscapula, about 2" iinferior to coracoid process. Portion away from ribs; exposure made during quite breathing to blur lung markings AP scapula Lange Q&A; pg 108
Leg extended no pelvic rotation, foot dorsiflexed, CR perpendicular to midshaft tibia; lower leg, both joints should be included. AP lower leg (tibia/fibula) Lange Q&A; pg 123
Patient erect against upright bucky, weight evenly on legs; perpendicular CR midway between knees at level of patellar apices; knee joints - arthritic evaluation. AP weight bearing bilateral knees Lange Q&A; pg 124
The neural/vertebral arch supports? 2 superior articular processes, 2 inferior articular processes, 2 transverse processes, and 1 spinous process. Lange Q&A; pg 133
Patient supine; 15-25 cephalad to midline, midway between pubic symphysis and ASIS; sacrum. AP sacrum Lange Q&A; pg 143
Rotate medially 30 degree, plantar surface and IR form 30 degree angle, perpendicular to base of 3rd metatarsal; most tarsals, metatarsals and articulations, sinus tarsi, tuberosity of 5th metatarsal. Medial oblique foot Lange Q&A; pg 119
Leg extended, plantar surface perpendicular to IR; Cr perpendicular midway between malleoli through tibiotalar joint; ankle joint, distal tibia/fibula, talus AP ankle Lange Q&A; pg 122
Turn to side that brings affected toes closest to IR; unaffected toes taped back. Perpendicular to proximal IPJ. Projection of toes and articulations. Lateral toes Lange Q&A; pg 119
Patella perpendicular to tabletop, foot slightly dorsiflexed with plantar surface parallel to IR; perpendicular to metatarsal bases; foot and ankel joint, distal tibia and fibula; superimposed tarsals, tibia and fibula. Lateral knee Lange Q&A; pg 119
Leg extended, foot dorsiflexed, plantar surface perpendicular; Joint stressed in inversion; joint stressed in eversion; CR perpendicular to midway between malleoli; ankle joint: inversion and eversion: separated joint or torn ligament AP stress view ankle Lange Q&A; pg 122
Created by: blbrown1