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forensics midterm

T/F A hair consists of 2 parts: a follicle and a shaft TRUE
T/F The hair shaft is made up of 3 layers: an outer medulla, a cortex, and an inner cuticle FALSE
The region of a hair located outside of the medulla containing granules of pigment the cortex
hair is considered _________ evidence class
What is the main purpose of hair? regulate body temperature
Microscopic characteristics of hair are medulla pattern cortex pigment cuticle scales (all of the above)
6 areas hair is on body head eyebrows/ eyelashes mustache/beard overall body (auxiliary) underarms pubic
what part of hair contains DNA follicle
T/F chain of custody is the list of all the people who cam into contact with evidence True
T/F the first act of the first authorized personnel on the crime scene is to begin to collect evidence False
T/F our emotional state influences our ability to see and hear whats around is True
T/F thru our senses we gather info every single moment true
a forensic examiner must be able to identify evidence record evidence determine significance of evidence (all of the above)
forensic science is strictly concerned with uncovering evidence that stands as a fact
the first step in investigating crime secure the scene
criminal investigators depend on the observation skills of all involved. who is involved police forensic scientist witnesses (all of the above)
when evaluating eyewitness testimony, investgator must discriminate between fact and opinion
trace evidence includes hair in trash fingerprints on glass blood on shirt (all of above)
labs process all of the evidence to determine facts of case who is innocent who is guilty (all of above)
Locards principle states whenever 2 pieces of evidence come in contact, material will be exchanged
forensic in latin means of the forum
forensic is application of science to law
what are the four practices of being a good observer observe systematically turn off filters leave final interpretation of data till later write it down
why do our brains make it difficult to have an accurate observation (short answer) Filter out information Fill in gaps in our perception Imperfect memories
3 things that effect our observations (short answer) • Emotional state • Whether you're alone or part of a group • What type/ How much activity was going on around you
what is direct evidence? example (short answer) Proves an alleged fact surveillance videos
what is circumstantial evidence? example (short answer) Used to imply a fact but can't prove it hair
what is class evidence? example (short answer) can be used to narrow down suspect list to a group of people ○ blood type
what is individual evidence? example (short answer) can be used to narrow down suspect list toa single person ○ DNA
chemical vs. physical evidence? examples (short answer) Chemical: needs to be altered to be figured out (blood type) Physical: can be found without altering (hair color)
list in order steps to processing crime scene secure crime scene separate witness search crime scene for evidence photograph, sort, package evidence question witnesses review surveillance video
T/F experts cannot agree on a single definition for death true
3 ways a can die referred tp as manner of death: natural, accidental, and homicidal false
natural death is caused by failure of body functions due to age or disease and is least common manner of death false
a homicide is the death of one person caused by a minimum of 2 or more persons false
the longer the postmoretem interval, the more accurate the estimate of the time of death false
the medicacl examiner is responsible for determining the manner of death true
insects that arrive 1st to lay eyes on dead body blowflies
reason someone dies cause of death
specific change in body brought about the end of life is mechanism of death
liver mortis roughly means death color
pooling of blood in body, (lividity) provides a clue as to how long the person has been dead. it first begins about 2 hours after death
death stifness rigor mortis
rigor mortis is temporary
factors affecting rigor mortis are temperature activity before death body weight (all of above)
to take corpses temperature, the investigators insert thermometer into liver
scene marker example a pick-up ticket for dry cleaner
during autopsy, med examiner removes and examines the brain heart lung (all of above)
the 1st step of investigation is a preliminary investigation is conducted at the death scene
non biological evidence includes carpet fiber a used water glass dust from crushed bricks (all of above)
investagtors know that a victim had been dead around 12 hours if body temp is 9.4
why is it difficult for forensic scientists to determine an exact time of death it is a process and not a specific moment
why do a corpse's muscle stiffen after death lack of oxygen in blood
4 tests the medical examiners will send evidence to lab for toxicology histology neurology serology
when is the first stage of death called, when body reaches point of no return stoppage
3 major phases of a death investigation preliminary autopsy lab test
an autopsy is conducted to determine what 4 things? manner of death mechanism of death cause of death time of death
what 4 things does an autopsy report include? internal exam external exam injury list M.E. findings and opinon
differences between manner of death, mechanism of death,cause of death manner of death: homicidal, natural, accidental mechanism of death: specific body failure (crushing of skull/bleeding out) cause of death: reason (bat/bullet)
T/F Bones originate from living cells called osteoplasts false
T/F During the development of the fetus, bones begin as soft cartilage. Osteoblasts migrate to centers of cartilage to harden bones (called ossification) true
T/F Osteoclasts, one type of bone cell, are specialized to creatr bone false
T/F Bones breath and consume evnergy true
when bones become injured, osteoclasts secrete enzymes that dissolve the injured part of bone
how many bones do babies have 270
what connects joints cartilage, ligaments, and tendons
to distinguish between male and female pelvis, the sub pubic angle is greater than 90 on females and less then 90 on male
the man suture marks on a skull, marking where bones are growing together, are the lambdoidal, sagittal, and the coronal
when the head of a long bone has totally formed to its shaft, it is an indication of age
how does Osteoporosis occur? (short answer) a lack of calcium consumed causes the osteoplasts to dissolve bones to release the calcium which weakens the bones
3 bones that can differentiate between male and female (short answer) pelvis, skull, femur
3 differences between male and female skull (short answer) female: smooth, jaw >90, less prominent brow bone male: bumpy, jaw ~90, more prominent brow bone
one way to determine a skeleton's age (short answer) by looking to see if the suture marks are there or have disappeared
Created by: jo.seal