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Everything Else


biosphere animals/ living
hydrosphere water
geosphere rocks
atmosphere air
2 most abundant elements oxygen and silicon
2 most abundant minerals Feldspar and quartz
most common rock on the surface of earth sedimentary
characteristics of a mineral inorganic, solid, defined chemical composition, orderly crystalline structure, naturally occurring
cleavage vs fracture breakage pattern vs not
determines cleavage of fracture strength of bonds between atoms
mineral made of oxygen-silicon tetrahedron quartz
mineral's powder streak
reflection of light off a mineral diaphaneity
different types (diaphaneity) transparent (quartz), opaque (magnetite), translucent (talc)
cid is used in mineralogy to test for HCL (fizzes up)
mineral group: calcite, hematite, sulfur, quartz carbonate, oxide, sulphur, silicate
4 speciel tests diaphaneity, elasticity, HCL, magnetite
how is each rock classified: sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic particle size (detrital) & chemical composition (chemical), texture &mineral composition, foliated & non foliated
felsic, mafic (what creates difference) light, dark, difference in silica
first and last to crystallize in magma (felsic or mafic) olivine (mafic), quartz (felsic)
types of rocks produced by, rivers, deep in the crust, volcanoes, deep seas, melted rock in magma chamber that cooled, beaches sedimentary(conglomerate), metamorphic, igneous, sedimentary (limestone), igneous, sedimentary (beaches)
sedimentary forms from what? compaction, weathering followed by cementation,
igneous forms from what? layering, cooling lava, melting followed by cooling,
metamorphic forms from what? heat and pressure, foliation, chemically active fluids
obsidian glassy, mafic, igneous,
limestone sedimentary, calcium carbonate, large cells,
gneiss metamorphic, foliated, high metamorphism
granite felsic, igneous, coarse-grained
conglomerate pebbles, sedimentary, detrital
quartzite metamorphic, parent rock is sandstone
sandstone sedimentary, medium grained, detrital
grabbro mafic, course-grained, igneous
parent rock of metamorphic rock original rock from which this rock was created
Contrast Regional Metamorphism vs Contact Metamorphism changed by heat and pressure over wide area VS rock mineral and texture are changed by heat
frost wedging cracking of rock by freesing and thawing; breaking rock into smaller pieces
dissolution building up of sediments at the inside of curve of a stream (CO2 in water)
oxidation a mild acid dissolves limestone and creates caverns; water and iron
hydrolysis breaking down feldspar into clay; clay and water (feldspar)
unloading uplift of a pluton and decreasing pressure/ splitting of igneous rock
mineral that weathers slowest/ fastest quartz/olivine
mechanical weathering is where far from equator
chemical weathering is where near equator
slump curved scar; fast
solifluction slow, permafrost area
creep slow, free/thaw area, best fences (slowest)
rockfall fast, talus slope (fastest)
earthflow fast, clay and lots of water, only sedoments
rockslide fast, underlaying clay layer, lots of percipitation
soil horizons O- organics, A- mineral matter, E- eluvation and leaching, B- clay, C- weathered bedrock R- not weathered bedrock
greatest angle of repose and least gravel>sand>silt
deposited sediments: glacier, water, wind erotics, meander, loess
what sediment would travel fastest in a stream slit
dissolved load, suspended load, bed load, silt, sand, gravel
discharge of stream width(depth)(velocity)
gradient of stream vertical drop/ distance
sediment with slowest permeability/ highest biggest/ lowest
Snake River Aquifer contains fractures basalt
groundwater discharge Q= dh/dl times KA (velocity times gradient times area)
Created by: miabegic2